List of subject articles


    • Open Access Article

      1 - Dialogue of Civilizations from a Feminist Perspective
      فاطمه صادقی
      This article is an attempt to clarify some aspects of interaction among civilizations from a feminist point of view. Questions that this article tries to answer are: If we consider the “symbolic” order of modern societies on one hand, and “semiotic” anarchy Full Text
      This article is an attempt to clarify some aspects of interaction among civilizations from a feminist point of view. Questions that this article tries to answer are: If we consider the “symbolic” order of modern societies on one hand, and “semiotic” anarchy (in Kristevian terms) of other societies on the other, is there any possibility to establish a dialogue among these cultures on the basis of mutual understanding? Or would that be an agonal dialogue which, as Lyotard puts it “ falls in the domain of agonistics” of power? And finally, how would a non- agonal dialogue be possible without reduction of any culture into another? Manuscript Document
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      2 - Dialogue of Civilizations Objective Grounds and Theoretical Guidelines
      محمود علی‌پور
      The present paper is inspired by part of a research titled “Dialogue of Civilizations and International Communications: An Analysis of the Actual and Theoretical Grounds of Realizing a Dialogue among Civilizations”. In part one, a review of various modern schools of pol Full Text
      The present paper is inspired by part of a research titled “Dialogue of Civilizations and International Communications: An Analysis of the Actual and Theoretical Grounds of Realizing a Dialogue among Civilizations”. In part one, a review of various modern schools of political philosophy is carried out with a view to distilling models which would be congenial to the idea of the dialogue of civilizations. These are divided into the three categories of “interest-oriented liberal”, “liberal based on an ethical relationship”, and “non-liberal based on political solidarity”. Part two is an examination of the various patterns that have emerged in the field of communications in the past thirty years, as well as a brief account of their distinctive characteristics. The first paradigmatic order mainly encompasses a model critical of the prevailing capitalist system in the world. The second paradigmatic model, as underlined by Habermas, has stronger affinities to the notion of communication. The last model is more in tune with the views of communitarians. The final part is an attempt at ascertaining the degree to which the examined theories and guidelines lend philosophical and political substance to the idea of dialogue of civilizations as a scientific theory. Based on such an approach it becomes possible to establish stronger links between communitarian notions and the idea of dialogue among civilizations. Manuscript Document
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      3 - Critical International Relations Theory and Dialogue of Civilizations
      حميرا ‌ مشیرزاده
      Although “dialogue of civilizations” is not a wholly new concept, its popularity was due to its being reintroduced by the Iranian President in the late 1990’s. As a notion in international relations, it has significant theoretical implications at different levels includ Full Text
      Although “dialogue of civilizations” is not a wholly new concept, its popularity was due to its being reintroduced by the Iranian President in the late 1990’s. As a notion in international relations, it has significant theoretical implications at different levels including ontological, epistemological, sociological, and normative. It is, however, theoretically underdeveloped. Among the theories of international relations, the so-called critical international theory might be seen as one of the best theoretical contexts for understanding and conceptualizing the theoretical contribution of dialogue of civilizations. This paper attempts to clarify this contribution. Critical theory is best known for its emphasis on dialogue and discourse and on the way that dialogue can shape the foundation for truth, objectivity, and consensus. At the international level, these may have more specific implications both in meta-theoretical and theoretical aspects. This paper will show how ontologically this idea can alter the state-centric conception of international relations. Epistemologically, it may function as a basis for non Euro-centric conceptions of international relations. Sociologically, it is a way towards the formation of moral community. And finally it is normatively oriented towards a less-exclusionary, fairer world politics. It will be argued that in all these four aspects it is more or less consistent with meta-theoretical, theoretical, and moral commitments of critical international theory. Manuscript Document
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      4 - The Political Thought of Reza Davari Ardakani
      سيدرضا ‌ شاكري
      This essay is a look into the political thought of Reza Davari. The author seeks to address two basic pivots in Davari’s political thinking; first his deliberations on Farabi’s political philosophy; and second, his critique of modernity. It is claimed here that Davari’s Full Text
      This essay is a look into the political thought of Reza Davari. The author seeks to address two basic pivots in Davari’s political thinking; first his deliberations on Farabi’s political philosophy; and second, his critique of modernity. It is claimed here that Davari’s political thought is primarely philosophical, and also necessarily affected by the historical context of his life. Manuscript Document
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      5 - Friendship in Political Philosophy
      عباس  منوچهری
      Friendship was one of the pivotal notions in Aristotle’s Ethics. It has, however, been neglected and marginalized in the history of western thought. There has, however, in recent times a new attentionbeing paid to this notion. This essay studies the relationship between Full Text
      Friendship was one of the pivotal notions in Aristotle’s Ethics. It has, however, been neglected and marginalized in the history of western thought. There has, however, in recent times a new attentionbeing paid to this notion. This essay studies the relationship between contemporary political philosophy and friendship by assesing the notion of solidarity in this regard . Manuscript Document
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      6 - Islam and Democracy in Youssef Al Gharzavi’s Political Thought
      مرتضي بحراني
      This article seeks to explain the role of democracy in Islamic political thought of Youssef Al Gharzavi. In his view, Islam has recognized democracy and has specified rules and criteria for it. Promoting goods and preventing evils, council, allegiance, and women partici Full Text
      This article seeks to explain the role of democracy in Islamic political thought of Youssef Al Gharzavi. In his view, Islam has recognized democracy and has specified rules and criteria for it. Promoting goods and preventing evils, council, allegiance, and women participation in social and political arena are examples for these rules. Manuscript Document
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      7 - Shiite Foghaha and Monitoring Political Power
      توحيد  محرمي
      The author examines the notion of monitoring "political power" monitoring presented theories in Shiite foghaha’s views. Disscussing views regarding the necessity and sufficiency of inner control, as well as those regarding the necessity of both inner and outer control, Full Text
      The author examines the notion of monitoring "political power" monitoring presented theories in Shiite foghaha’s views. Disscussing views regarding the necessity and sufficiency of inner control, as well as those regarding the necessity of both inner and outer control, constitute the core issues of this essay. Manuscript Document
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      8 - Structural Factors Affecting the Occurrence of the Islamic Revolution in Iran
      يحيي‌ ‌ فوزي
      This paper studies the structural factors or, in other words, the long term causes that brought about the revolution in Iran; and tries to answer the following questions: - What were the structural factors effecting the occurrence of the revolution in Iran? - How eac Full Text
      This paper studies the structural factors or, in other words, the long term causes that brought about the revolution in Iran; and tries to answer the following questions: - What were the structural factors effecting the occurrence of the revolution in Iran? - How each of these factors affected the occurrence of the revolution? In order to answer these questions, the structural evolutions in political, economic, social and cultural spheres of contemporary Iran have been studied and the consequences of such evolutions in bringing about imbalance, and at last, revolution, have been analyzed in a descriptive-analytical manner. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      9 - Post Marxism and "Post Marxism
      Mohammadreza Tajik
      Why shall we be rethinking Socialist project today? As the answer to this question, Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe try to take an active, conscious, and not a passive, unconscious role in the contemporary history. They choose as their goal, a (relatively) clear separ Full Text
      Why shall we be rethinking Socialist project today? As the answer to this question, Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe try to take an active, conscious, and not a passive, unconscious role in the contemporary history. They choose as their goal, a (relatively) clear separation from the conflicts they take part in; and understanding the changes that happen in front of their eyes. At the last analysis, they find out that it is necessary to use Derrida's deconstruction method to challenge the structure and the foundation of Orthodox Marxism. Manuscript Document
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      10 - Justice: Rawls v.s Plato
      مصطفي  يونسي
      One of the constant and lasting issues of political philosophy and ethics is justice. That is why philosophers of different epochs and various approaches have dealt with this subject. This article has specifically chosen two philosophers belonging to two different eras, Full Text
      One of the constant and lasting issues of political philosophy and ethics is justice. That is why philosophers of different epochs and various approaches have dealt with this subject. This article has specifically chosen two philosophers belonging to two different eras, namely Plato and Rawls, who were directly or indirectly preoccupied with the concept of justice. The criteria for choosing these two intellectuals is that, beyond their individuality, they are the representatives of two different models; or more specifically, two opposite models in the field of philosophizing the concept of justice. Therefore, it is attempted to present a portion of their thought on the concept of justice by focusing on the comparable parts of their literary works, namely Plato's "Politics" and Rawls's "A theory on justice". By doing so, we find out that Plato begins the concept of justice from inside of the human being, whereas Rawls begins the issue of justice from outside of man. Manuscript Document
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      11 - Recalling the Political Philosophy of Historical Socrates/Plato's Socrates
      سيدمحمود  نجاتي حسيني
      Although hard to believe, the distinction between historical Socrates and Plato's Socrates is an issue in the history of political philosophy that has only been marginally dealt with in literature. But the present article makes this issue its focal and central subject. Full Text
      Although hard to believe, the distinction between historical Socrates and Plato's Socrates is an issue in the history of political philosophy that has only been marginally dealt with in literature. But the present article makes this issue its focal and central subject. The subject of the article is that, in an in-depth comparison, the political philosophy of Socrates and Plato are both divergent (historical Socrates vs. real Plato) and convergent (Plato's Socrates vs. Socrates' Plato). The starting point of the issue is that through researching and scrutinizing the speeches and writings of Socrates and Plato, one can trace the convergence and divergence in their logos and dialogues. Therefore, semiotics of logo-dialogue of historical Socrates vs. Plato's Socrates, as well as the logo-dialogue of Socrates' Plato vs. real Plato, will lead to the exploration of two basic classical philosophies. This article tries to prove these claims and assumptions through hermeneutic and semiotic analysis. Manuscript Document
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      12 - Orwellian paradox
      حسن  آب‌نیکی
      George Orwell, the English novelist, wrote his famous novel "1984" to criticize the utopias of his era. In his novel, Orwell, always seeking to warn about the possible outcomes of totalitarianism, portrays a man who is subjugated by the rigid power structures and has Full Text
      George Orwell, the English novelist, wrote his famous novel "1984" to criticize the utopias of his era. In his novel, Orwell, always seeking to warn about the possible outcomes of totalitarianism, portrays a man who is subjugated by the rigid power structures and has become a political subject, a subject pushed to his limits. Therefore, the important point here is Orwell's view of human being and its transformation to a subject. Orwell's overemphasis on subjugation gives a metaphysical aspect to human being and at the same time offers him another utopian system. The very system that Orwell previously intended to criticize, now entraps him. In fact, this is exactly where Orwell's paradox lies; since while criticizing utopia, he proposes non-dominance utopia to his metaphysical subject. This paradox is due to Orwell's view to human being as a political subject. Manuscript Document
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      13 - Internet and Political Development: Public Sphere in Cyberspace
      محمدقلي  ميناوند
      During the last decade of the 20th century, along with extraordinarily fast developments and evolutions in computer-based communication, and also the increasingly widespread access of different societies to the internet and cyber-networks, considerable efforts have been Full Text
      During the last decade of the 20th century, along with extraordinarily fast developments and evolutions in computer-based communication, and also the increasingly widespread access of different societies to the internet and cyber-networks, considerable efforts have been made to find an appropriate pattern for studying internet and the dimensions of its political and social impacts. Among these efforts, the concept of public sphere defined according to sociological ideas of Jurgen Habermas has gained an outstanding status. In this field, researchers are usually interested in answering the question that whether computer-based communication in the net can pave the way for political development and reinforcement of democracy through the revival of public sphere? In order to answer this question, we have to basically know whether the idea of public sphere is an appropriate theoretical pattern for researching this field or not? Each of the theoretical works and researches accomplished during recent years -of which some are mentioned in this article- have taken some aspects of the concept of public sphere into consideration and have used the concept to study the relation between internet, politics and power, and also their reciprocal impacts. These studies suggest that according to many researchers the concept of public sphere proves to be an appropriate theoretical pattern; but except few scholars, all believe that this pattern needs some modification or adaptation to specific conditions of computer-based communication and the recent evolutions in different societies. Manuscript Document
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      14 - Formation of International Cooperation in Confrontation with Terrorism: Strategies, Opportunities and Challenges
      رضا  سيمبر
      This article emphasizes the idea of global cooperation for confronting the phenomenon of international terrorism and it also argues that the failure to reach a consensus over the definition of terrorism is the main obstacle for overcoming this problem in global level. T Full Text
      This article emphasizes the idea of global cooperation for confronting the phenomenon of international terrorism and it also argues that the failure to reach a consensus over the definition of terrorism is the main obstacle for overcoming this problem in global level. This article also argues that a more effective role can be taken by the United Nations and international law to confront terrorism. The United Nations should fight poverty, inefficient governments and underdevelopment, whether or not these issues are related to the terrorism phenomenon. In confrontation with terrorism, the United Nations should show terrorist acts as undesirable and detestable as possible, so that there would be less motivation for committing such acts. In other words, the crucial question posed here is: what are the main strategies of the international community for confronting international terrorism? The article argues that these two strategies can complement each other and pave the way for more international cooperations. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      15 - یبایبا
      یبایبا
      یبایبا Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      16 - Hegemony in International Politics: Conceptuap Framework, Historical Experience and Its Future
      جهانگیر کرمی
      The concept of hegemony was first used in the third decade of the 20th centuty to analyze internal politics and it was only aftre 1960's that this term entered the domain of international politics. During 1970's the theorists of international political economy used the Full Text
      The concept of hegemony was first used in the third decade of the 20th centuty to analyze internal politics and it was only aftre 1960's that this term entered the domain of international politics. During 1970's the theorists of international political economy used the tern as a pivotal concept, but in fact it was only at the post cold war era that many debates began on this subject. In this article, hegemony is studied as an important concept in many different theories and ideas of international relations, which is equally very influential in the domain of international politics. Different views on hegemony are presented and studied in order to illustrate the reason behind the emergence, function, continuance and fall of a hegemonic power. The present situation of international politics as well as pro and con views of the American hegemony during last decades are also studied. Manuscript Document
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      17 - Shanghai Organization and the Security of Central Asia
      الهه  كولايي
      Iran became an observer member of the Shanghai Organization on 2005. Considering the reasons behind the formation of this organization and the transformation process it went through, this event has led to serious debates on how Iran can cooperate with this Organization. Full Text
      Iran became an observer member of the Shanghai Organization on 2005. Considering the reasons behind the formation of this organization and the transformation process it went through, this event has led to serious debates on how Iran can cooperate with this Organization. "Shanghai Five" group was first established to resolve security and border related problems between China, Russia and CIS countries (except Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan). Later, when Uzbekistan joined Shanghai Five, the group was promoted to organization level. Although many changes have taken place during the transformation process of this regional security cooperation and some economic problems have also been taken into consideration, but basically this Organization has paid more attention to security and military problems in general. The main question brought forth in this article is: "What is Shanghai Organization's role in providing the secrutiy of Central Asia?" The article studies the transformation process taken place in this Organization , so that its role as the provider of secrutiy in Central Asia is illustrated. Manuscript Document
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      18 - Politicography in Iran (Methodic study of five works from political science field)
      سيدرضا ‌ شاكري
      After the establishment of the new political system in Iran, there were many attempts to comprehend this newly generated order and its important axis, the jurisprudent guardianship. The increased number of political science guraduates and religious scholars of Qom resea Full Text
      After the establishment of the new political system in Iran, there were many attempts to comprehend this newly generated order and its important axis, the jurisprudent guardianship. The increased number of political science guraduates and religious scholars of Qom research centers in the last one and a half decade, which is due to the existing political conditions and power relations, has led to the creation of a preoccupation that we have referred to as "politicography" in this article. In the descriptive analytical report on this phenomenon, some outstanding works of contemporary political writers has been methodically studied. Manuscript Document
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      19 - Red Reason and Green Rights: Illuminationist Anthropology and Human Rights
      عباس  منوچهری
      The notion of "Human Rights" encompass the two notions of "man" and "right" and the relationship between the two. This relationship, however, pertains to much theoretical as well as philosophical elaboration. Looking critically at the prevailing conception of this relat Full Text
      The notion of "Human Rights" encompass the two notions of "man" and "right" and the relationship between the two. This relationship, however, pertains to much theoretical as well as philosophical elaboration. Looking critically at the prevailing conception of this relationship, namely that of possessive individualism, this paper points to a different conception of such relationship. Using the two metaphors of "Red Reason" for a conception of "man", and "Green Rights" for an emancipatory conception of "right", an Illuminationist (Eshraghi) view of "human rights" is elaborated on. Manuscript Document
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      20 - "Islam and Modernity" in the Thoughts of Seyyed Jamaleddin Asad Abadi
      mohamad ali tavana
      The confrontation of Islam and modernity have taken different forms in the thoughts of Islamic thinkers. Among those, the perception of Seyyed Jamaleddin Asad Abadi from Islam and modernity can be the outset of a new view that considers the adaptation and unification of Full Text
      The confrontation of Islam and modernity have taken different forms in the thoughts of Islamic thinkers. Among those, the perception of Seyyed Jamaleddin Asad Abadi from Islam and modernity can be the outset of a new view that considers the adaptation and unification of these two discourses as the solution to retardation and imperialism in Islamic countries. Seyyed Jamaleddin Asad Abadi believed that the key to breaking free from Imperialism and retardation lies in re-interpretation of Islam, but this re-interpretation should be realized within the modernity discourse. In fact Seyyed Jamaleddin Asad Abadi first makes a distinction between modernity and the West, and then seeks the non-Western modernity. Therefore, the re-interpretation of Islam in the thoughts of Seyyed Jamaleddin Asad Abadi leads to the re-construction of a modern but non-Western identity. That is why the answer of Seyyed Jamaleddin Asad Abadi to the crisis of Islamic societies in 19th century- retardation and Imperialism- is Islamic modernism as a distinguished and different identiy from the Western one. Manuscript Document
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      21 - Feminist Views and the Urban Iranian Women Prospects
      بهرام  نوازني
      Feminism tries to change the social structure, just like any other social movement. Feminism has gone trough many changes and evolutions. But the common point among all different Feminist views is that power has always been unequally distributed among men and women and Full Text
      Feminism tries to change the social structure, just like any other social movement. Feminism has gone trough many changes and evolutions. But the common point among all different Feminist views is that power has always been unequally distributed among men and women and this has led to the supremacy of men over women so that the knowledge and the current women’s rights has been written by and based on this supremacy. Feminism is to organize women in many countries with the help of multilateral institutions to fight against male supremacy and to empower and advance the world’s women and to re-examine all schools of knowledge and to reveal the extent to which they ignore or distort gender. However, this field study on the Iranian women residents in over 30 cities, from university educated to semi-illiterate, wealthy to poor, old to young, government employee to jobless and from married to single, shows that most Iranian women, regardless of their different tendencies of fundamentalism, reformism and secularism, lacked any political activity and even any notable and satisfactory social experience. They mostly dislike political parties and groupings even the ones run by women or for women; and if there was any trend towards the social activities, it would be unorganized and unbiased from gender point of view. Nevertheless, the common characteristic of the urban Iranian women is their critical position against a patriarchal system cast in both public and private life with regardless their private or public institutions being religious or secular. Manuscript Document
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      22 - Ali Shariati and Cultural Alienation
      امير  روشن
      The subject of “alienation” is one of the key and major issues in Shariati’s thoughts. As a matter of fact he analyzes and explains contemporary human’s concerns and issues through this concept. According to Shariati, in “self-alienation”, man feels as if “another indiv Full Text
      The subject of “alienation” is one of the key and major issues in Shariati’s thoughts. As a matter of fact he analyzes and explains contemporary human’s concerns and issues through this concept. According to Shariati, in “self-alienation”, man feels as if “another individual” is “himself” and loses self-consciousness and suffers from a kind of “fraud self-consciousness”. Self-alienation is in other words like losing the “true and essential self”, in addition to the “social self.” Shariati believes that whatever distances mankind from his humanistic features- which possess a certain definition for him- is a factor for alienation. Based on Shariati’s thoughts, instrumental intellectuality, bureaucracy and machinery have altogether alienated man from own true self in the twentieth century; whereas he criticizes these issues from this point of view. Still he does not regard these as the problem; yet he believes we suffer from lack of machinery and if we complain from lack of it, it becomes obvious that we are feeling other pains and suffering from them. He claims that humankind is the essence of history and his cultural environment, and as long as they possess their own individual culture, religion and pains, they enjoy their own “true self”. But cultural imperialism has alienated men from themselves by distorting history, culture and also the religion of the third world countries; and therefore they suffer from“fraud self-consciousness”. He assumes that the solution is not offering a mass and general solution, but before anything else, we must return back to our own true “selves” and let go of “self-alienation” and free ourselves of it. Manuscript Document
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      23 - Psychoanalysis and Politics
      Mohammadreza Tajik
      Post-Freud psychoanalysis, as manifested in Lacan’s teachings, has had a deep influence on the contemporary theoretical criticism, feminism, film theories, post-structuralism, and Marxism. As a matter of fact this branch of psychoanalysis is a post-modern separation fro Full Text
      Post-Freud psychoanalysis, as manifested in Lacan’s teachings, has had a deep influence on the contemporary theoretical criticism, feminism, film theories, post-structuralism, and Marxism. As a matter of fact this branch of psychoanalysis is a post-modern separation from Sigmund Freud’s teachings. This theory is also to some extent based on the structural and linguistic humanistic discoveries. One of Lacan’s most fundamental beliefs, as the most prominent figure of this school, is that the unconscious has a concealed and hidden structure; quite similar to the structure of language. The recognition of the world, others and self is determined through language. An individual’s precondition for gaining knowledge about himself- as a distinct entity- is language. Lacan also offers a three-angled pattern of the social-psychological world; including the imaginative aspect, the symbolic aspect and the real aspect; which has a vast and serious influence on the domain of the new political realm; post-modernism, post-structuralism, post-Marxism, and feminism. Manuscript Document
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      24 - Mysticism and Politics from Aziz-Eddin Nasafi’s Point of View
      داود  فيرحي مهدي  فدائي مهرباني
      One of the major and most important issues of survey and study within Aziz Nasafi’s ideas is the study of his political approach in his mystical thoughts. This essay discusses Sheikh Aziz Nasafi’s thoughts and opinions (probably born in 596 A.H.); one of the seventh cen Full Text
      One of the major and most important issues of survey and study within Aziz Nasafi’s ideas is the study of his political approach in his mystical thoughts. This essay discusses Sheikh Aziz Nasafi’s thoughts and opinions (probably born in 596 A.H.); one of the seventh century mystics and philosophers; who had an undeniable effect on Iran’s philosophical thought; especially in the relationship between philosophy and mysticism. This paper trys to reveal how Aziz Nasafi’s thoughts led to the foundation and establishment of a political thought on the basis of mystical thought in Iran. It seems that this movement became persistent in Iran and finally turned into the dominant flow. Nasafi’s political thought can be observed as a political-mystical thoughts. Therefore the present article surveys the influential aspects and dimensions of the Iranian political thought evolving from Nasafi’s mystical thought. Manuscript Document
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      25 - Hegel, Marx and Gramsci on State and Civil Society
      محمدتقي  سبزه‌اي
      The purpose of this article is the comparative survey of three contrastive theoreticians- Hegel, Marx, and Gramsci- on state, civil society and their relationships. Hegel assumed the civil society as a combination of three systems; the economical, legal and cohesive (po Full Text
      The purpose of this article is the comparative survey of three contrastive theoreticians- Hegel, Marx, and Gramsci- on state, civil society and their relationships. Hegel assumed the civil society as a combination of three systems; the economical, legal and cohesive (police and their related classes) which stand between the family and the state; which ultimately substitutes the state. Marx considers the civil society as the domain of work and everyday life, which is a totally economical and apolitical domain. Unlike Hegel and Marx, Gramci observes the civil society as a cultural sphere. The result of this theoretical comparative analysis shows that although these three contrasting theorists of philosophical principles assume a similar and common society as the base of their analysis, their conclusions on the society’s pattern structure differs with each other. Hegel substituted the three-dimensioned pattern of “family-civil society-state” with Aristotle’s classic two-dimensioned pattern of “family-city state”. Also Marx’s substructure pattern (on civil society) and superstructure (state) changed for Gramsci to the substructure (economic) and superstructure (civil society = nongovernmental organs + state). Gramci’s state is a combinative state compiled of the satisfaction of “mastery + power” and therefore it is both the substructure and the superstructure. Manuscript Document
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      26 - The Theoretical and Practical Bases of Ramazan Albouti’s Political Thought
      اصغر  افتخاري
      If the major approaches of religion and social act are divided to two principal branches with tendencies for tradition and religion, then Ramazan Albouti can be counted as a known Sunni scholar in the realm of religion and the criticism of conventionality. The present a Full Text
      If the major approaches of religion and social act are divided to two principal branches with tendencies for tradition and religion, then Ramazan Albouti can be counted as a known Sunni scholar in the realm of religion and the criticism of conventionality. The present article discusses the basic principles of Albouti’s theoretical and pragmatic ideas by referring to his written texts and sources; which all emphasis on the spirituality and religious beliefs in man’s social life. Issues discussed and mentioned include; seeking justice, denial of secularism, new religious tendencies, and referring back to the original Islam as the theoretical principle. Also conservatism, having an attitude based on power, reformation, and pragmatism- as the basic practical principles- is the other topics discussed by Ramazan Albouti. Manuscript Document
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      27 - The Origin of Youth Movement in Iran
      مسعود  غفاري
      This article intends to express the origin of the Iranian Youth Movement during 1981-2001. During these three decades, the Youth Movement has been one of the most significant social movements in the political realm of Iran. For elaborating the source of this movement, “ Full Text
      This article intends to express the origin of the Iranian Youth Movement during 1981-2001. During these three decades, the Youth Movement has been one of the most significant social movements in the political realm of Iran. For elaborating the source of this movement, “generation gap” and “democracy” have been surveyed as the two factors; while the results show that the origin of the Youth Movement in Iran has been the opposition of democracy and authoritarianism; and not generation gap. This article has used the results of some formal research inquiries in addition to the official statistics as well. Manuscript Document
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      28 - Dialogue in the E-World (The Impact of Informative-Communicative Technologies on the Cross-Cultural Dialogues)
      احمد  گل‌محمدي
      The persistent and increasing concerns about the perseverance and raise of possibility of peaceful and fair coexistence in the infra-national, national and trans-national have all highlighted the significance of dialogue to a high extent. That is why the factors and fie Full Text
      The persistent and increasing concerns about the perseverance and raise of possibility of peaceful and fair coexistence in the infra-national, national and trans-national have all highlighted the significance of dialogue to a high extent. That is why the factors and fields influencing dialogue have become the topic of many researches and discussions. One of these factors is the communication-informative technologies which affects the differing aspects of social life more than ever. The topic of this article is the impact of communicative-informative technologies on the cross-cultural dialogues within the general electronic sphere. In this framework it will become clear that although the possibility and potential of communication and transaction about information increases the potential for dialogue, it also causes its own certain limitations and distortions too. The mentioned limitation is basically the result of the uneven division of related possibilities regarding this kind of technology, while the particular circumstance of the general electronic domain distorts the cross-cultural dialogues. Manuscript Document
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      29 - ‘Greed’ and ‘Justice’: Political Pathology of Monarchy in Firdausi’s Shahnameh
      تقي  رستموندي
      Firdausi’s attempt in Shahnameh to explore the causes of the rise and fall of powers in political history of Iran is based on a pathological explanation in the form of poetry. In the same way, he offers a criterion for maintenance and stability of political systems. Rel Full Text
      Firdausi’s attempt in Shahnameh to explore the causes of the rise and fall of powers in political history of Iran is based on a pathological explanation in the form of poetry. In the same way, he offers a criterion for maintenance and stability of political systems. Relying on ‘practical logic’ on the understanding of political thought. The present article reviews Firdausi’s political thought. Manuscript Document
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      30 - The Relation between Self and Political Power in St. Augustine’s Thought
      mohamad ali tavana
      St Augustine’s Confessions is the first autobiography in western literature. It introduced first- person point of view to western thought. First- person point of view is an initiation to the concept of ‘self’. The City of God is the only work of St Augustine’s to episod Full Text
      St Augustine’s Confessions is the first autobiography in western literature. It introduced first- person point of view to western thought. First- person point of view is an initiation to the concept of ‘self’. The City of God is the only work of St Augustine’s to episodically include his political philosophy, and therefore a good reference to understand his views on the subject. The present article is to examine the relation between ‘self’ and ‘political power’ in St Agustin’s thought, employing an intertextual approach. In doing so, we will start by discussing the process of formation of ‘self’ in his thought. Then will refer to the ontological and epistemological origins of political power in The City of God. At the end, it is shown that the sense of ‘self’ has an instrumental approach to ‘political power’. Manuscript Document
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      31 - ‘Friendship’ in Political Thought and Psychotherapy
       
      Being normative, political thought suggests the best form of political system. In the history of thought, ‘friendship’ has been a vital concept among the others, functioning in the formation of ideal societies. However, changes in political thought in the modern time ha Full Text
      Being normative, political thought suggests the best form of political system. In the history of thought, ‘friendship’ has been a vital concept among the others, functioning in the formation of ideal societies. However, changes in political thought in the modern time have lead to the marginalization of friendship. But in recent decades, the notion of friendship has been renewed in the form of such concepts as ‘solidarity’. Studying the thoughts of contemporary thinkers, we can find sciences like psychotherapy as a major contribution to this renewal. Due to Jurgen Habermas’ thoughts and Eric Fromm’s theory of ‘the Sane Society’, the insights of psychotherapy have been highly influential in bringing the concept of ‘friendship’ back to the center of attention of political thought. Manuscript Document
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      32 - Ērānšahr in Greek works: * With Focus on Plato-Xenophon's Philosophical and Political Works (I)
      حاتم  قادری
      Iranians and the Greek came to have contacts with each other very soon in line with expanding their territories. In spite of the dominance of politico-military aspects, the political and philosophical-religious mutual effects should not be neglected. As far as their ear Full Text
      Iranians and the Greek came to have contacts with each other very soon in line with expanding their territories. In spite of the dominance of politico-military aspects, the political and philosophical-religious mutual effects should not be neglected. As far as their early contact concerns, it should be noticed that it was the Greek who were most influenced by Iranians' teachings, and their political and philosophical-religious manners. In the first part of this article the Greek's main speculations, focusing on Athenians, and Iranians' political and philosophical-religious teachings is analysed. Manuscript Document
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      33 - Shifting Mechanisms in I.R.Iran and Japan Relations
      الهه  كولايي ماندانا  تيشه‌يار
      Essential principle of Japan’s foreign relations with all countries used to be separation of political issues from economic considerations. The shift in the nature and structure of power within international system led this country to revise its outlook and base its ec Full Text
      Essential principle of Japan’s foreign relations with all countries used to be separation of political issues from economic considerations. The shift in the nature and structure of power within international system led this country to revise its outlook and base its economic relations on political relations with different countries. To serve their own long-term interests, today Japanese find it an undeniable necessity to accord with the global process of supporting western globalized models and values. Fearing that its strategic relations with the US be disturbed, could be considered one of the factors in changing Japan’s attitude towards Iran. Manuscript Document
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      34 - Iran and Regionalism in South-Western Asia: Strategies and Solutions in Iran’s Foreign Policy
      رضا  سيمبر
      Presenting a ladder model for the process of regional convergence, and explaining its different phases, the present article studies the major differences between neo-regionalism and classical regionalism. Regarding five positions - regional space, regional assemblage, Full Text
      Presenting a ladder model for the process of regional convergence, and explaining its different phases, the present article studies the major differences between neo-regionalism and classical regionalism. Regarding five positions - regional space, regional assemblage, regional society, regional community, and regional institutionalized political assemblage - and considering the present situation, south-western Asia stands in the second phase, i.e. regional assemblage,; and to provide it with negative peace rather than positive one is of priority. This is the main idea of the present article which surveys the main strategies of Iran’s foreign policy in this regard in order to find suitable solutions. Manuscript Document
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      35 - Globalization and Iranian Ethnic Identity with a Focus on Language and Customs
       
      It is believed that as a result of increasing globalization, identities of ethnic minorities will inevitably dissolve into one global culture. Others believe that globalization not only will not dismiss ethnicities but also, providing them with appropriate requisites, Full Text
      It is believed that as a result of increasing globalization, identities of ethnic minorities will inevitably dissolve into one global culture. Others believe that globalization not only will not dismiss ethnicities but also, providing them with appropriate requisites, will help to increase their ethnic consciousness and thereby strengthening ethnic movements. So, to study consequences of globalization, features of ethnic identity have to be taken into consideration. The present article studies cultures of ethnic identities, and proposes the hypothesis that globalization gives prominence to ethnic identities in short time, and may also lead to ethnic movements, but eventually it will result in assimilation of ethnic minorities with dominant cultures. Manuscript Document
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      36 - Identity Discourse of Islamic Revivalism: Backgrounds and Thoughts
       
      The discourse of ‘Islamic Revival’ is the first influential reaction to Modernity. Opposing the secular modernists, they tried to develop and establish their own discourse, supporting rationalism, justice, freedom, equality, gradual changes and reforms, councils, parlia Full Text
      The discourse of ‘Islamic Revival’ is the first influential reaction to Modernity. Opposing the secular modernists, they tried to develop and establish their own discourse, supporting rationalism, justice, freedom, equality, gradual changes and reforms, councils, parliamentary government system, adapting to Islamic Law (Shari‘a), and so on. In fact, the discourse of ‘Islamic Revival’ that developed in the period of Qajar from the inside of the domestic changes in Islamic countriesas attempted to offer a religious understanding of the ways of confronting the issues challenging Islamic societies (including Iran), and stressed the necessity of taking actions about and reactions to the modern identity. The Consequences and effects of modernity on political, economic, social, and cultural sectors of the Iranian society made the theorists of the discourse redefine traditions, models and institutions related to the traditional life, and clarify their relations to the concepts such as rationalism, freedom, equality, progress and law, in confrontation with the concepts emerging from the condition of the new civilization. Manuscript Document
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      37 - Ērānšahr in Greek works*: With Focus on Plato-Xenophon's Philosophical and Political Works (II)
      حاتم  قادری
      Iranians and the Greek came to have contacts with each other very soon in line with expanding their territories. In spite of the dominance of politico-military aspects, the political and the philosophical-religious mutual effects should not be neglected. As far as their Full Text
      Iranians and the Greek came to have contacts with each other very soon in line with expanding their territories. In spite of the dominance of politico-military aspects, the political and the philosophical-religious mutual effects should not be neglected. As far as their early contacts concerns, it was the Greeks who were influenced more by Iranians' teachings, and their political and philosophical-religious manners. In the first part of this article the Greeks' main speculations, focusing on Athenians and Iranians' political and philosophical-religious teachings is analyzed. Manuscript Document
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      38 - New Critical Theory: Beyond Postmodernism and Pos- Critical Thinking
      جهانگير  معيني علمداري
      In this article, first, the main characteristics of new critical theory (NCT) is described as a response to postmodernism and a return to the early Frankfurt School. NCT challenges pessimism and Skepticism of postmodernism and post - critical thinking and revives radica Full Text
      In this article, first, the main characteristics of new critical theory (NCT) is described as a response to postmodernism and a return to the early Frankfurt School. NCT challenges pessimism and Skepticism of postmodernism and post - critical thinking and revives radical tradition. of critical theory of course NCT is also concerns about recent developments and wants to accomodate it, without assimilations with it simultaneously, NCT adheres principals and take refuge in reformism. So, NCT tries to compromise continuity and discontinuity, Finally NCT seeks for a radical solution for ills of late capitalism and for this matter goes beyond Habermasian and postmodern reconstructive approach. Manuscript Document
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      39 - Political Theory: A Paradigmatic Approach
      Political Thought is usually applied to the commentaries on political Ideas and concepts. There should, however, be a distinction between political ideas and the commentaries and explanation of such ideas. In fact such commentaries should be called “Political Theories”, Full Text
      Political Thought is usually applied to the commentaries on political Ideas and concepts. There should, however, be a distinction between political ideas and the commentaries and explanation of such ideas. In fact such commentaries should be called “Political Theories”, for they explain political thoughts and concepts and elaborate on issues regarding normative thought. In this article, after discussing some major political theories, a paradigmatic theory is introduced. Manuscript Document
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      40 - Political Theory: A Paradigmatic Approach
      عباس  منوچهری
      Political Thought is usually applied to the commentaries on political Ideas and concepts. There should, however, be a distinction between political ideas and the commentaries and explanation of such ideas. In fact such commentaries should be called “Political Theories”, Full Text
      Political Thought is usually applied to the commentaries on political Ideas and concepts. There should, however, be a distinction between political ideas and the commentaries and explanation of such ideas. In fact such commentaries should be called “Political Theories”, for they explain political thoughts and concepts and elaborate on issues regarding normative thought. In this article, after discussing some major political theories, a paradigmatic theory is introduced. Manuscript Document
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      41 - Politics and Existentialism: A Study of Hannah Arnedt’s Approach to Action
      مصطفي  يونسي  
      The question of the present paper regards Hanna Arnedt’s ideas about human action. Is “action”, in Arnedt’s thought, merely an answer to the problems of the contemporary man, or what? The hypothesis is that Arnedt has an existentialist approach to “action”, and offers i Full Text
      The question of the present paper regards Hanna Arnedt’s ideas about human action. Is “action”, in Arnedt’s thought, merely an answer to the problems of the contemporary man, or what? The hypothesis is that Arnedt has an existentialist approach to “action”, and offers it as a solution of disastrous crises upon the contemporary man. To test the hypothesis, we begin with the study of the concept of “action” in Arnedt’s thought, then we will see what existentialism is, and what its main principles are, and finally we will show the relationship between existentialist thoughts and Arnedt’s approach, contrasting her approach to “action” with the main principles of existentialism already made clear. Manuscript Document
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      42 - Globalization and Post- Westphalian Governance, a Focus on the Stances of the Islamic Republic of Iran
      شهروز  ابراهيمي
      The subject matter of the present article is the interaction of national sovereignty with the transnational one in the context of globalization. This study shows that, national sovereignty is not threatened by globalization in itself. Rather, it, maintening its identi Full Text
      The subject matter of the present article is the interaction of national sovereignty with the transnational one in the context of globalization. This study shows that, national sovereignty is not threatened by globalization in itself. Rather, it, maintening its identity, acquires a global identity, so they can coexist with each other. Globalization does not take place merely from above, but there is a new form known as "globalization from below" which lessens the pressures of "globalization from above". Interactive view of the Islamic Republic of Iran can have such influence, and can lessen the pressures of globalization, and positively contribute to transnational sovereignty. Examples of such a view are "dialogue of civilizations", and "public diplomacy". Manuscript Document
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      43 - Comparative Study of the Analytical and Methodological Frameworks of Oil Studies and Politics
      سعید  میرترابی
      This paper aims to show that, during the past four decades, the literature on Rentier State, contrary to popular opinion, has not been consistent, whether in content or in methodology. Based on their methodological framework, the studies have been classified into two d Full Text
      This paper aims to show that, during the past four decades, the literature on Rentier State, contrary to popular opinion, has not been consistent, whether in content or in methodology. Based on their methodological framework, the studies have been classified into two distinct types. The first generation of studies emerged in 1970s, but their failure at explaining the situation of oil-rich countries and clarifying the consequences of fall in oil incomes sever criticisms. The criticisms in connection with the first wave of the studies provided a ground to revise the methodology, and the way of conceptualizing foreign rents and their assessments. This resulted, particularly since 1990s, in the second wave of studies a wave that could be considered as revisionism. This approach brought new variables into the studies. It paid more attention to the historical background of oil-rich countries and the historical periods when oil incomes raised (with respect to the various stages of formation of the government and the regime in power). It focused on the interrelationship between oil rent and social and political condition of these countries, avoiding structural look to the oil rents. Some of the supporters of the new approach proposed new criteria for evaluation of oil incomes. This approach offered the possibility of more complex analyses, especially in the areas of political stability and democratic transition in the oil-rich countries, analyses that better explain different experiences of the oil-dependant states. Manuscript Document
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      44 - Ontological Foundations of Political Idealism in Islamic Philosophy with Focus on the Illuminationist Philosophy of Suhrawadi
      ahmad bostani
      In this paper, we focus on the relationship between ontology and political thought in Moslem philosophers’ views, especially in Iran. According to ancient philosophical systems, the ontological point of view is very important, and every intellectual argumentation, inclu Full Text
      In this paper, we focus on the relationship between ontology and political thought in Moslem philosophers’ views, especially in Iran. According to ancient philosophical systems, the ontological point of view is very important, and every intellectual argumentation, including political one, must be understood in the light of ontology. Islamic political philosophy consists in an idealism that rejects the political reality and opens new ideal horizons. This political idealism is based on the ontological foundations of Islamic philosophy; therefore, understanding Islamic political philosophy implies understanding its ontological and cosmological basis. This is important for the present article, especially in this point that according to Muslem philosophers an ideal political system should be of the same system as the whole cosmos. Discussing the basis of ideaism, the present paper, as a case study, aims to show that the Illuminationist philosophy of Suhrawadi has elaborated a new ontological system, based on the Light, and therefore, it can provide a new model for ideal politics. Manuscript Document
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      45 - The Status of Political Philosophy
      مرتضی  بحرانی
      In questioning the status of political philosophy among other fields of humanities, there would be many answers in different paradigms. In classical thoughts, with a normative view on human being and society, political philosophy lies under the category of practical ph Full Text
      In questioning the status of political philosophy among other fields of humanities, there would be many answers in different paradigms. In classical thoughts, with a normative view on human being and society, political philosophy lies under the category of practical philosophy. In this respect, it has a fixed correlation with ethics, and all its statements seem to be universal. But in modern era, the normative characteristic was seen as problematic, and political philosophy was reduced a power/security oriented realm. Protecting itself against the attacks of positivists, political philosophy abandoned its cliams of universality and normativity. In order to retain its existence and to affirm its utility, political philosophy appeared as a paradigm focusing on itself as its object. This is like what happened in the field of linguistics where language turned out to be its subject and object at the same time. Finally, “political entity can be effective and important in explaining the present status of political philosophy, and interprating its meaning. Manuscript Document
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      46 - Particular Absolutes in Rorty's Thought
      Mohammadreza Tajik
      Western epistemology, particularly representationalist epistemology, is the basic conviction behind Rorty's critical attacks. Rorty's pragmatic approach aims to find explanations for political and ethical viwes of contemporary West. Such an approach is deeply rooted in Full Text
      Western epistemology, particularly representationalist epistemology, is the basic conviction behind Rorty's critical attacks. Rorty's pragmatic approach aims to find explanations for political and ethical viwes of contemporary West. Such an approach is deeply rooted in teachings of linguistics, and descriptive approaches toward the formation of human’s understanding of entities. But in an atmosphere of theories, can Rorty be able to avoid meta-theoretical damages on the one hand, and normative views in the field of science, on the other hand? Manuscript Document
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      47 - The Antigone of Sophocles and Athenian Democracy
      مصطفي  يونسي  
      The main purpose of this article is to find the relation between political implications of Sophocles’s Antigone and “Athenian Democracy”. To do so, we have used a structuralist approach the main feature of which is exploring binary oppositions in the text which in turn Full Text
      The main purpose of this article is to find the relation between political implications of Sophocles’s Antigone and “Athenian Democracy”. To do so, we have used a structuralist approach the main feature of which is exploring binary oppositions in the text which in turn results in finding the oppositions within the political-social life that provides a ground for the creation of the text. From the point of view of political thought, the most prominent opposition in the tragedy of Antigone which creats a network of oppositions around itself, is the one drawn between “family”- with its values- and “political system” and the relationships among the citizenry. The importance of this opposition has been confirmed by Christian Meier, Jean Pierre Vernant, Charles Segal, and even Micheal Zelnak.It reveals a transition to the epoch of citizenry’s relations. It also caused the confrontation between “unwritten divine laws” and “man-made written laws”, the opposition that is the main focus of the present article. Manuscript Document
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      48 - Modern State, National Army, and Conscription
      Vhid sinaee
      National armies, and conscription are institutions that established by nation-state. Because the state’s claim on exclusive dominatation over and the legitimate use of force in a specific territory required formation of military institutions, i.e. national army, and co Full Text
      National armies, and conscription are institutions that established by nation-state. Because the state’s claim on exclusive dominatation over and the legitimate use of force in a specific territory required formation of military institutions, i.e. national army, and conscription. This link was established through the legal- theoretical foundations of the state, i.e. national sovereignty, and nationalism. In this context, nation served as a source of human forces to military organizations, and conscription, which in turn helped strengthen and stabilize the modern state. Manuscript Document
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      49 - Television and National Identity: Representation of Historical and Political Features of National Identity in The ‘A’ grade Historical Serials on Television during Three Decades after the Islamic Revelation of Iran
      منصور  ساعی
      The main objective of the present article is to study the frequency and ways of representing features of national identity in A grade historical serials on television during the three decades after the Islamic Revolution (1359-1388). 15 ‘A’ grade historical serials, out Full Text
      The main objective of the present article is to study the frequency and ways of representing features of national identity in A grade historical serials on television during the three decades after the Islamic Revolution (1359-1388). 15 ‘A’ grade historical serials, out of 50, produced and broadcasted through channels One and Two during the last three decades (5 serials per decade) were analised. The findings of the study shows that under the influence of media and culture policies, the representation of features of national identity has got an ideological status. Linguistic and imagery construction of TV in representing historical and political dimensions is based on creating a negative picture of Iranian historical and political heritage, neglecting national symbols such as national flag and anthem, and taking positive attitude towards historical figures of religious status. Manuscript Document
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      50 - Political Business Cycle: Political Arguments for Economic Instabilities
       
      Reviewing economic literature indicates that economists were emphasizing on economic factors as causes of economic instabilities until 1970s. But since then, political economists emerged who attributed economic instability to factors other than economic ones. Offering t Full Text
      Reviewing economic literature indicates that economists were emphasizing on economic factors as causes of economic instabilities until 1970s. But since then, political economists emerged who attributed economic instability to factors other than economic ones. Offering theories such as political business cycle, they tried to prove that political factors lead to economic instabilities. They offered opportunistic political business cycles and partisan political business cycles that respectively, attributed the economic instabilities to election, and to replacement of political parties. To elaborate this literature, the present article first focuses on these two kinds of political business cycles and tries to explain through which mechanisms political factors cause instabilities in economic sphere. It considers political business cycles as a sign of "bringing the politics back in economics" an idea which is an obsolete thought, dating back to the past two centuries. Finally, the article indicates that "bringing the politics back in economics" can question those economists who insist in separation of economics from politics, and emphasizes interdisciplinary studies developed in the recent decades. Manuscript Document
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      51 - Historiographical & Ideological Approaches and Publicizing Indigenous Thought: Future of Western Political Thought in Iran
       
      Most of the works on western political thought written in Iran, fall in an intermediary position between the two approaches of historiographical and ideological types. By historiography I mean an approach that, giving centrality to discussing elaborately the historical Full Text
      Most of the works on western political thought written in Iran, fall in an intermediary position between the two approaches of historiographical and ideological types. By historiography I mean an approach that, giving centrality to discussing elaborately the historical chronology of formation of a political thought, and biographies of the scholars in the field, neglects to analyze, criticize, and evaluate it. The second type of the works on western political thought is of ideological quality that giving centrality to a particular thought follows a biased approach to it. Such works try to promote an ideology regardless of the explanatory and analytical requirement for an argument. The present article, studying features and consequences of the two approaches in Iranian works on western political thought, attempts to show the necessity for studying it with the sociological approach to thought, whose comprehensive and deep look at a political thought helps to closely understand it in its historical, cultural, political, economical, ideological aspects, and above all, its reflective view. Since a reflective view gives especial importance to the understanding and the criticism resulting from background conditions, subjective nature of cognition, and identity- cultural structures, it can help us with getting rid of the circle of imitation and repetition, and publicizing indigenous thought, more than any other models. Manuscript Document
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      52 - The Influence of Technology on Democracy: Technological Democracy
      سیدهدایت  سجادی
      There are two general views on the impact of technology on democracy: a) technology is a threat to democracy, b) technology provides proper grounds for democracy. The aim of this article is to study the consequences of the influence of technology on democracy. Taking te Full Text
      There are two general views on the impact of technology on democracy: a) technology is a threat to democracy, b) technology provides proper grounds for democracy. The aim of this article is to study the consequences of the influence of technology on democracy. Taking technologistic and cultural approaches, this paper studies the influence of technology on the four components of democracy as a government system- decision making policy, human beings as decision makers, community as consisting of individuals, and procedures of determining destiny- and argues that technology is an integral part of democracy in modern technological era to the extent that it entails making the new term as «technological democracy. This term overshadows the question of whether technology is a threat or opportunity to democracy. The question would be significant, when its purpose is to reconcile democracy and technology. Manuscript Document
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      53 - Chinese Society of Homogeneity and Harmony: A Critical and Analytical Approach
      حسین  جمالی
      China, experiencing fundamental changes and transformations, has attracted many attentions, today. One of the changes in the past decade was in its leaders’ orientations to constructing a homogeneous and harmonious society which entails solidarity among its human commun Full Text
      China, experiencing fundamental changes and transformations, has attracted many attentions, today. One of the changes in the past decade was in its leaders’ orientations to constructing a homogeneous and harmonious society which entails solidarity among its human communities, and its adaptability with nature. Studying such a society in the light of objectives of development, theories on transition to democracy, adaptability of socialism, modernism and tradition, ideological and utopian processes, and functions of political systems can to a greet effect make its complex aspects clear . The main idea of the present paper is that pragmatism has functioned more effectively in China’s progress towards a homogeneous and harmonious society than any other factors, very function of which can be evaluated just considering their interactions with pragmatism. Manuscript Document
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      54 - Theory of Domination in the Political Views of Ibn- Farra’ Hanbali
      مهدي  فدائي مهرباني
      Abu Yaala Mohammad Ibn Al-Hossain Ibn Mohammad Ibn Khalaf Ibn Mohammad known as “Ibn Farra” (990- 1066) is an Islamic Jurisprudent who played a great role in expansion of Hanbali school of Islam. His works portray him as a strict Sunni jurisconsult. In his book named “ Full Text
      Abu Yaala Mohammad Ibn Al-Hossain Ibn Mohammad Ibn Khalaf Ibn Mohammad known as “Ibn Farra” (990- 1066) is an Islamic Jurisprudent who played a great role in expansion of Hanbali school of Islam. His works portray him as a strict Sunni jurisconsult. In his book named “ Al-Ahkam Al-Sultanniah” he attempts to provide a religious jurisprudential justification for political dominations of the rulers. He can be considered as one important figure of domination theory (Istiilla and Taqallub) among the Sunni. He has not been introduced or studied to and in Farsi. In this article we survey various aspects of his political views. Manuscript Document
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      55 - John Rawls’ Theory of Political Justice: A Solution for the Contradiction between Equality and Freedom
      mohamad ali tavana
      To find a solution to obviate the contradiction between equality and freedom is one challenging problem in political philosophy. All schools- from liberal to multiculturalist- have tried to solve the it. One important attempt is John Rawls’ theory of political philosoph Full Text
      To find a solution to obviate the contradiction between equality and freedom is one challenging problem in political philosophy. All schools- from liberal to multiculturalist- have tried to solve the it. One important attempt is John Rawls’ theory of political philosophy where he puts forward political liberalism as a key concept. Taking a critical approach, the present article studies Rawls’ theory. In doing so, it employs an analytical framework, and the method of content analysis. Firs, it introduces the basic elements and principles of the theory, then it examines how compatible or contradictory they are with conclusions made, and finally discusses the (in)efficiency of the theory in obviating the problem of freedom and equality. Manuscript Document
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      56 - A Study of Adel Daher’s Philosophical and Political Views
      فریبرز  محرم‌خانی
      Adel Daher is one of the sophisticated Arab intellectuals who is unknown in Iran. Like any modern philosopher, he considers intellect as the first means of identification. Dividing intellect into two parts of theoretical and practical, he believes that besides identifyi Full Text
      Adel Daher is one of the sophisticated Arab intellectuals who is unknown in Iran. Like any modern philosopher, he considers intellect as the first means of identification. Dividing intellect into two parts of theoretical and practical, he believes that besides identifying the means to attain goals (teleos), intellect also serves to determine the very goals. In other words, he believes in goal-oriented rationality as well as value-oriented rationality. He does not think of philosophical thought as a profession, detached from human community; rather, he considers it as bearing the task of criticizing and modification of social life. He believes that if the core of religion is truly understood, then it becomes clear that those who believe in the necessity of the relation between religion and worldly mundane life are false. The present paper studies the main theoretical framework of this Lebanese thinker’s views based on a metatheoretical approach. Manuscript Document
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      57 - The Political and Cultural Impacts of Globalization on Iranian Ethnic Groups (A Field Study on Azeri, Arab, Kurd and Baluch Students)
      علی  امیدی فاطمه  رضایی
      Globalization is one characteristic of the world today. On the other hand, ethnicity, under some conditions, provides an excuse for political tensions. There are various views on the effects of globalization on ethnicity. Some theoreticians believe that as globalizatio Full Text
      Globalization is one characteristic of the world today. On the other hand, ethnicity, under some conditions, provides an excuse for political tensions. There are various views on the effects of globalization on ethnicity. Some theoreticians believe that as globalization grows, identity of ethnic minorities undergoes the assimilation of the values of the mainstream culture, which in turn is absorbed into the dominant global culture. However, others believe that globalization helps increase political self-awareness of ethnic groups. Overall study of these views show that political aspect of ethnicity is a function of different domestic and world factors, and is not of the same situation in all countries. In the present article, we study political and social situation of four Iranian ethnic minorities- Azeri, Arab, Baluch and Kurd. This is a field study. The data is gathered using questionnaires and interviews. Findings of the research show that while globalization, culturally, has led to a decrease in strictness of minorities over their cultural features- except language, it, politically, has resulted in a rise in their awareness and demands. Hence, to manage the demands, the government is expected to take felicity measures, including: promoting democratization, creating equal opportunities for political and economical participation of all groups, lowering the center-periphery distance through fair budget, and encouraging the national will for employment and removing deprivation. Manuscript Document
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      58 - Governmentality in the History of Political Philosophy
        فاطمه  ذوالفقاریان
      The present article is an attempt to depict three types of government establishment in the process of political philosophy, based on technology, i.e., the field of practical thought and unconscious capability. Government establishment is to adjust communal behavior of h Full Text
      The present article is an attempt to depict three types of government establishment in the process of political philosophy, based on technology, i.e., the field of practical thought and unconscious capability. Government establishment is to adjust communal behavior of humans in a political affair in an acceptable way, to reduce possible threats from it and to increase the occurance of benefit, joy, and pleasure. Accordingly, the three ideal types of political consciousness-metaphysics, physics, and information- form three eras. The present article studies the process of theoretical and practical politics as its negative and positive aspects, and introduces the theory of chance studying crises and transitions. It discusses what different types of government establishment are. Is any regularity in them when the history of political philosophy is involved? What is the realization of government establishment in three eras of consciousness? The purpose here is to offer government establishment in an unbiased theory, which can move from its state as a negative constituent in the era of information to cover all the area of political thought. Manuscript Document
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      59 - Interpretation of Religion (Din) and its Influence on the concept of Freedom in the Political Thoughts of Mohammad Mojtehed Shabestari and Mohammad Taqi Mesbah Yazdi
      amir roshan محسن  شفیعی سیف آبادی
      After the triumph of Islamic Revolution in Iran, scholars in the fields of religion and politics faced many new issues in the areas of politics and interpreting religious texts. Among them Mohammad Mojtehed Shabestari and Mohammad Taqi Mesbah Yazdi dealt with religious Full Text
      After the triumph of Islamic Revolution in Iran, scholars in the fields of religion and politics faced many new issues in the areas of politics and interpreting religious texts. Among them Mohammad Mojtehed Shabestari and Mohammad Taqi Mesbah Yazdi dealt with religious texts either using traditional ways or hermeneutical ones. Having different methods, tendencies and intensions, they offered to interpretations of religious texts and issues like freedom. Using Quitin Skiner’s methodology of intentional hermeneutics, the authors of the present article try to clarify the main cause of the difference in their political views and its effect on their political views on issues like freedom. Shabestari, taking interpretative and hermeneutical method, with the purpose of preserving fate and human aspect of the believers, interprets religion in a way that can accept freedom and open socio-political conditions with tolerance. Mesbah, focusing on traditional jurisprudential ways, with the purpose of preserving the status of religion in political and social affairs as he believes that religion has perfect and comprehensive teachings and instructions for humans in achieving transcendental goals, limits human freedom and denies liberal social and political conditions. Manuscript Document
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      60 - Value Pluralism and Freedom in the Thoughts of Isaiah Berlin
      یاشار  جیرانی
      One major claim of liberalism in the latter half of the twentieth century was that it can be considered as a normative system due to value-based pluralism, a concept of its. The first scholar to introduce this in terms of a systematic thought was the English political p Full Text
      One major claim of liberalism in the latter half of the twentieth century was that it can be considered as a normative system due to value-based pluralism, a concept of its. The first scholar to introduce this in terms of a systematic thought was the English political philosopher, Sir Isaiah Berlin. Defining liberalism as a school placing negative freedom on top of value hierarchy, he argues that liberalism is inferable from the principles of value pluralism. He tries to confirm a logical entailment between value pluralism and preference of negative freedom in three ways, including, giving importance to having choice, opposition to utopia, and belief in existence of universal values. We will see how these ways fail to confirm such an entailment. The article discusses the possibility of inferring any value preference from the above mentioned relying on its anti-rationalist feature and decision making patterns. Manuscript Document
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      61 - The Nature of Political Affair in Augustine’s City of God
       
      This article tries to cast a new light on the political implications of Saint Augustine’s City of God. Considering Peter Burnell views as in his “the status of politics in St. Augustine’s city of god”, we will show that in Augustine’s theology there is no room to discus Full Text
      This article tries to cast a new light on the political implications of Saint Augustine’s City of God. Considering Peter Burnell views as in his “the status of politics in St. Augustine’s city of god”, we will show that in Augustine’s theology there is no room to discuss “politics” as an autonomous subject. For him, politics is a matter of worldly and post Descent status. At best, politics in can be a means of maintaining peace and security at this temporal world, and as an abode for the pilgrims of “the City of God”. Though man is naturally considered as a “social being” in Augustine’s thought, he believes this feature has been faded at the result of “politicalization” which has been imposed on him by his post Descent condition. So Augustine, completely detaching from Greek tradition of political philosophy and denying of civic relations, depicts his own city of God in non-corporeal utopia. Manuscript Document
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      62 - The Crisis in Nation- State and its Possible Future
      ایوب  امیرکواسمی
      The current upheavals suggest that nation-state has lost its functional tenability; that is because the supposed basic functions of such systems that were maintenance of ideology, economics, culture, and so on at the national level are facing crises. Nation-state can no Full Text
      The current upheavals suggest that nation-state has lost its functional tenability; that is because the supposed basic functions of such systems that were maintenance of ideology, economics, culture, and so on at the national level are facing crises. Nation-state can no longer fully implement their political ideals at national areas. In the functionalist approach, the existence of institutions depends on their functions, so with no place for their functions, the survival of nation-state will be unintelligible .The principle objective of this paper is to study a possible future of nation-states and their successors. The method of the study is reasoning. The results of this paper include two important points: the development of statehood and the formation of global political order based on democracy. Manuscript Document
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      63 - The Elements and the Processes Influencing International System
      رضا  سیمبر ارسلان  قربانی شیخ‌نشین
      Portraying different approaches towards contemporary international relations which attempt to study the structures of its present order and depict the future horizon, this paper poses the main questions of what the current structure of international system and its domin Full Text
      Portraying different approaches towards contemporary international relations which attempt to study the structures of its present order and depict the future horizon, this paper poses the main questions of what the current structure of international system and its dominant order is, and what approaches best explain the prospect of the future: liberalism, unipolar system, clash of civilizations, jihad against new colonialism, or anarchism. Can any of these systems explain future scenarios by itself or they are just parts of the paradigm of current world system when put together may provide answers to the question? The main idea of the article is that any discourse about world order has to cover four aspects: political and military balance of power, strengthening international institutions and global sovereignty, emphasis on shared human values, and explaining the structure of world political economy and finance production and distribution. Manuscript Document
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      64 - Intra and Supra Theoretical Factors of Developments in Theories of Regionalism
      الهه  كولايي بهاره  سازمند
      Regionalism has been one of the main topics of social science, comparative politics, international economy, international relations, and international political economy in the last two decades. There is no consensus about its meaning among scholars. It is often consider Full Text
      Regionalism has been one of the main topics of social science, comparative politics, international economy, international relations, and international political economy in the last two decades. There is no consensus about its meaning among scholars. It is often considered as integration in international politics. Perhaps one of its reasons is the more objectivity of it in the regional level. Sometimes regionalisms perceived as intergovernment, and increased cooperation of different states. The main question of this essay is “what are the causes of development of regionalism theory?”; the assumption of the authors is that intra and supra theoretical factors have lead to changes in these theories. Manuscript Document
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      65 - The Relationship between Symbolism and Utopian Thought in Nima’s Poetry
      عباس  منوچهری
      Nima’s especial understanding of poetry and the poets’ status has a normative signification that results in depicting a kind of utopian vision in his poems. Stressing “imagination” in poetry, Nima like European symbolists, makes closeness and sameness between poetry an Full Text
      Nima’s especial understanding of poetry and the poets’ status has a normative signification that results in depicting a kind of utopian vision in his poems. Stressing “imagination” in poetry, Nima like European symbolists, makes closeness and sameness between poetry and truth, and then between the position of poet as poet and seer or clairvoyant. Such a closeness resulting in rejection of the present disorder, and offering an ideal world, is in line with the concept of ideology in political thought. In this way, Nima’s specific understanding of poetry gives way to a utopian thought that is known as the most obvious manifestation of social thought in his poetry. Manuscript Document
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      66 - Sohrevardi and Iranshahri’s Political Thought
      ahmad bostani
      According to Iranshahri’s political thought, king is the shadow of God on Earth (a symbolic concept) and existence of a just and charismatic king on top of government system guarantees prosperity of the country and the people’s felicity and welfare. Firdausi in his Shah Full Text
      According to Iranshahri’s political thought, king is the shadow of God on Earth (a symbolic concept) and existence of a just and charismatic king on top of government system guarantees prosperity of the country and the people’s felicity and welfare. Firdausi in his Shah-Nama (Epic of Kings) tried to reconstruct the doctrine of Ideal King and give an epic tone to it based on the demands of his time. Yet, Sohrevardi in the 6th century offered a reading of the same thought system which is referred here as “Gnostic-Illuminationist” reading of Iranshahri’s political thought. In this system “the world of imagination”, introduced by Sohrevardi, is a core concept; mythical aspect of the ideal kings in ancient narratives, such as Fereydun and Kay Khusraw, finds mystical reading, and terms like, Simorq (phoenix), Jam-e-Jahan-Bin (world-displaying cup), Mount Qaf, and so on get new interpretations. The present articles deals with Sohrevardi’s innovations in the area of Iranshahri’s political thought. Manuscript Document
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      67 - Modernity and Formation of Modern Political Theory
      سید رضا  شاكري
      Modern political theory is of great value for its inner authenticity and outer implementations; but how this theory has been formed? The hypothesis of this study is that the modernity invented and formed the forces which caused dramatically changes in foundations and im Full Text
      Modern political theory is of great value for its inner authenticity and outer implementations; but how this theory has been formed? The hypothesis of this study is that the modernity invented and formed the forces which caused dramatically changes in foundations and implementations of modern theory. Two primary factors are important here: scientific thinking as grounding factor, and new politics (modern state), which emerged aftermath the collapse of medieval ages as outer factor. New scientific thinking prepared the context for such an evolution by transforming the concept of nature, and in the realm of politics by concentrating on power and distancing form the idea of “excellent city”. So, the modern political theory emerged as an effective and referential framework for illustrating the political life and offered solution for political problems. By separating between new and old political theories in a historical sense, this paper attend to show the formation of modern political theory in modern era and how it separated from old world; it also illustrate the characteristics of modern political theory and its new practical implementations; the results indicate that modern political theory was credible and successful for relationship between its theoretical ideas and values and its practical implementations in socio-political life; a task of modern theory which is in danger and doubt, in the ear of globalization. Manuscript Document
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      68 - Economic Theory, Constitutional Law, and Justice
      abolfazl pasbani
      Using an interdisciplinary approach and analytical method, the present article attempts to find the possibility of applying justice to the economic theory in the Constitutional Law. The main finding of the study is that although the Constitutional Law has acceptable pot Full Text
      Using an interdisciplinary approach and analytical method, the present article attempts to find the possibility of applying justice to the economic theory in the Constitutional Law. The main finding of the study is that although the Constitutional Law has acceptable potentials and offers good solutions, its capabilities have been exaggerated and, according to Amartya Sen, it manifests a kind of transcendental institutionalism. However, attention to unofficial institutions can be more fruitful. Manuscript Document
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      69 - Globalization, Social movements, and Democracy in Iran
       
      During the recent decades, the world has experienced extensive cultural, social, economical, and political changes. Many scholars believe that in accordance with the changes in different areas of human life, taking a vast perspective to study culture and politics has be Full Text
      During the recent decades, the world has experienced extensive cultural, social, economical, and political changes. Many scholars believe that in accordance with the changes in different areas of human life, taking a vast perspective to study culture and politics has become of necessity. Hence, in modern sociology of politics, globalization has turned to one of key concepts and variables in explaining political and social changes. On the other hand, social movements are among the phenomena of great development in the modern time, so that today the social movements throughout the world, including Iran, have been developing along with the growth in the various aspects of globalization. The findings of this research show that globalization has affected social movements in Iran. One major effect has been establishing strong link between these movements. The present article tries to answer this question, “What is common ground of the social movements in Iran together?” Our study shows that the democracy has been the common demand of all social movements in Iran and their linking point. Manuscript Document
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      70 - The Power Elite in the City of Tehran1 The Role of Decision Makers in Social Issues
      ياسر  جلالي رحمت‌الله  صديق سروستاني
      Using Elite Theory and Institutional Approach, the present article studies the power group in the city of Tehran. The main questions of the research are: Do the heads of important institutions in Tehran form a power elite group? And is this group influential dealing wit Full Text
      Using Elite Theory and Institutional Approach, the present article studies the power group in the city of Tehran. The main questions of the research are: Do the heads of important institutions in Tehran form a power elite group? And is this group influential dealing with the social problems of Tehran? The article concentrates on the state organizations of the city and takes it for granted that their heads are power elites. The Research method includes studying documents and interviews with the elites. We have gathered our data through study of the individuals’ performance, decision makings, and relations regarding some special events. Individuals’ social characteristics are part of our data, as well. Manuscript Document
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      71 - Globalization and the Challenge of Political Participation in Islamic Republic of Iran1
      حسن  آب‌نیکی
      Challenge is considered as a key concept in social-political science. All states face it somehow. They have to examine different strategies to prevent it from turning into crisis because not knowing a challenge can put a state in institutional and non-institutional trou Full Text
      Challenge is considered as a key concept in social-political science. All states face it somehow. They have to examine different strategies to prevent it from turning into crisis because not knowing a challenge can put a state in institutional and non-institutional troubles, resulting in its deficiency and crisis in its legitimacy. Using institutionalism approach, the present article studies challenging effects of globalization on efficiency of Islamic Republic of Iran regarding political participation challenge. It shows how globalization can cause the challenge of political participation in Islamic Republic of Iran. Manuscript Document
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      72 - “Islamic Parliament” and Policy Making In Iran (1980- 2008)
      Vhid sinaee سمیه  زمانی
      Law-making assemblies are one of the institutions involved in the process of policy making. The range of their intervention is from real determination to formal influence. This fluctuation is affected by two categories of structural factors and agents. The structures in Full Text
      Law-making assemblies are one of the institutions involved in the process of policy making. The range of their intervention is from real determination to formal influence. This fluctuation is affected by two categories of structural factors and agents. The structures include the jurisdiction of Parliament, internal organizations of parliament, the power distribution in political systems and external structures which have impact on Parliament. The agents include executive head of parliament, chief executive, representatives and influential groups. Three types of parliament are detectable from relationship of these structures and agents that are determinative parliament, effective, low- of -effect and neutral in the process of policy making. This study is going to investigate the role of Islamic assembly in the process of policy makings in Iran based on the theoretical framework. The results of this study show that assembly had causative, and not determinative, role in regard to structural factors and agents in the process of policy makings. Manuscript Document
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      73 - Ibn Khaldun‘s “Loyalty” (Asabiyah) and Social Capital; an Analysis of Political Stability
      aliakbar asadi kaviji Abolfazl Shakoori
      Political stability and social order and, vice versa social decline and decay, are in the center of political and social thought. Centuries ago, an Islamic thinker, Ibn Khaldun discussed social order and political stability and gave a theory in regard of Loyalty (Asabiy Full Text
      Political stability and social order and, vice versa social decline and decay, are in the center of political and social thought. Centuries ago, an Islamic thinker, Ibn Khaldun discussed social order and political stability and gave a theory in regard of Loyalty (Asabiyah). Nowadays, the debates on social order and political stability have focused on the concept of “social capital”, and specific attitudes have developed among researchers. The aim of this paper is content analysis of Ibn Khaldun thought about Asabiyah, by comparing it with the concept of social capital; claiming that this can be done by a comparative study between new and traditional concepts. In this method we can throw a new light on the thinker’s thought in order to reload his thought for contemporary era and solving some of problems of current society. Manuscript Document
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      74 - The Globalized Politics; Restructuration of Political Order in the Sphere of Globalized State
         
      The power of the state that was constituted under the dominant Westphalia system, and characterized by the it’s supreme power according to Hegelian tenets, has changed and decreased due to the globalization process in one hand, and the postmodernism theory in the other Full Text
      The power of the state that was constituted under the dominant Westphalia system, and characterized by the it’s supreme power according to Hegelian tenets, has changed and decreased due to the globalization process in one hand, and the postmodernism theory in the other hand, especially regarding to the citizenship concept and international law. Globalization is such a process that globalizes politics and makes it as a network in a global village and shapes a new public sphere. In this new sphere the citizens are free from the intervention of the power possessing the sole legitimate use of power. Additionally the postmodern theory, that considers the state as one of the actors in the international relations and tries to reshape the forgotten sub-systems, form the new components of the new state. This new state is called globalized state because of the acceptance of deinstitutionalized norms in the international system and deconstruction of inflexible Westphalia system. Accordingly this article, s hypothesis is that, three lines of change, including the non-nationalized state, non stated state and politico-economic institutionalized regimes, all led to the transition of the state to the new form and content named as globalized state. Manuscript Document
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      75 - Categorizing the Political Culture; Case Study of the Students of Kurdistan University
      هادی  خانیکی Hamid Sarshar
      This paper focused on political culture and effective factors on political culture. It categorizes three pure types of political culture, according to Almond and Verba's theory, which are “Parochial”, “Subject” and “Participant”. These types are identified according to Full Text
      This paper focused on political culture and effective factors on political culture. It categorizes three pure types of political culture, according to Almond and Verba's theory, which are “Parochial”, “Subject” and “Participant”. These types are identified according to the “cognitional”, “emotional” and “evaluative” attitudes towards four conceptions: “system as a hole”, “outputs”, “inputs” and “self as a political actor”. The independent and grounding variants of this research include: gender, ethnicity, religion, academic discipline, academic level, political socialization and mass media. This research is done in survey method, according to a sample of 365 students of Kurdistan University. The results showed that the students have different types of political culture; and the dominant model among them is “non-participative protestor”; a model that was not defied in Almond and Verba's theory. The results also indicated that among the effective variants on political culture, the ethnicity, religion, academic level and mass media have meaningful impact on political culture of the students. Manuscript Document
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      76 - Studying the Relationship between Racial Integration (Kurds &Turks) and Stable Security; Recognition of Effective Factors on Integrating the Races in West Azarbayejan
      شفیع  بهرامیان امید  بهرامیان
      Regarding geo-political situation of west Azrabayejan and various racial trends in this province, the study of effective factors on integrating the races and the relationship between racial integration and feeling of stable security in west Azarbayejan is the core of th Full Text
      Regarding geo-political situation of west Azrabayejan and various racial trends in this province, the study of effective factors on integrating the races and the relationship between racial integration and feeling of stable security in west Azarbayejan is the core of this paper; so, the research was done by using survey method and by filling questionnaires in all biracial cities of this province and also in Mahabad city, as our statistical population in a sample of 500 persons. The results show that: a) racial integration has meaningful effect on stable security and more than 20% of changes can be analyzed by this factor. This factor has the most impact on national security, human security and global security; b) among the impact factors, age and the foreign intervene have reverse impact on racial integration, regarding scale of use and scale of trust to foreign mass media; c) other impact factors on racial integration, ranging from the most to the least impact, are: political elite, cultural capital, education, nationalism (pan Iranism), religion, the attitude toward political and administrative sphere, and marriage status; d) the study could not approved the meaningful relationship between racial integration and the following factors: gender, job, relative deprivation feeling, and tendency to universalism. Manuscript Document
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      77 - Evolution in Concept of Sovereignty in Political and International Approaches
      شهروز  ابراهيمي
      It seems that all the changes and evolutions in the concept of sovereignty have been occurred in theoretical framework, then in sphere of international relations and international laws and other forms of international affairs. National sovereignty and the concept of “na Full Text
      It seems that all the changes and evolutions in the concept of sovereignty have been occurred in theoretical framework, then in sphere of international relations and international laws and other forms of international affairs. National sovereignty and the concept of “nation- state” came to essence as a normative and legal principle after Westphalian Treaty (1648); but this normative and legal principle has never been absolute. So in the 18th and 19th centuries, and in the course of different approaches, it evolved completely and its normative aspect has been declined. The paper attends to four major controversial trends in political and international sphere, which are: a) contrast between communitarianism and universalism, which emerged from the European enlightenment in 18th and 19th centuries; b) contrast between realism and idealism, which came out after the establishing the discipline of international relations and had lasted till to 1970; c) contrast between neo-realism and liberalism, from 1970 to 1990; and d) contrast between realism and neo-realism in one side and critical post-cold war theories. The main discrepancy of these trends is on extent and limits of the state sovereignty. Manuscript Document
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      78 - The Relationship between Subject and Power in Don Quixote and Madame Bovary Novels according to Michel Foucault’s Theories
      Zeynab Saber پرویز  ضیاء شهابی
      Don Quixote and Madame Bovary are among the most influential novels in the history of fictions. This paper compares the elements of these two novels, based on Michel Foucault’s theories (1926-1984). Foucault analyzes the structure of power in the form of subjectivity an Full Text
      Don Quixote and Madame Bovary are among the most influential novels in the history of fictions. This paper compares the elements of these two novels, based on Michel Foucault’s theories (1926-1984). Foucault analyzes the structure of power in the form of subjectivity and criticizes the bases of Western metaphysic. Foucault, in his whole project, reveals the obvious principles and criteria in which the structure of dominant power defines the good life based on them. In this project, the interpretation of fiction has very important role. Accordingly, this paper tries to analyze how Don Quixote and Madame Bovary exhibit the normalization of a special form of good life in western culture and how they introduce a new style of life according on fiction; or In other word, how they establish a new subjectivity, and how, in this process, story and fact, words and things are combined. So, the paper reveals that the fiction can set up a way of life that resist against the dominant structure of normal life. On the contrary, the dominant structure refuses to accept the changes and stands firm against new trends by controlling, modifying, excluding, and imprisoning any forms of otherness. Manuscript Document
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      79 - The Theory of Conventional Constructivism and Researching about International Relations and Research Implications
      The emergence and expansion of constructivism as one of the significant conceptual and theoretical frameworks in International Relations in the two last decades was accompanied by an increase in interest toward empirical researches in this framework. Researching in the Full Text
      The emergence and expansion of constructivism as one of the significant conceptual and theoretical frameworks in International Relations in the two last decades was accompanied by an increase in interest toward empirical researches in this framework. Researching in the framework of this approach has some special implications which is unfortunately less followed in current researches and surveys, especially in students’ theses and dissertations. In addition to this, many of the young scholars in the field of International Relations who are theoretically interested in constructivism are in doubt about choosing domains of subjects they can empirically research from this perspective. The purpose of this article is to show The implications of conventional constructivism survey and it's subject domains. The applied method for collecting data in this essay is library-based and depends on the theoretical and meta-theoretical texts and empirical surveys and researches and shows that how can constructivism be a theoretical base for almost all subject domains in the field of International Relations. Manuscript Document
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      80 - The Theory of Conventional Constructivism and Researching about International Relations and Research Implications
       
      The emergence and expansion of constructivism as one of the significant conceptual and theoretical frameworks in International Relations in the two last decades was accompanied by an increase in interest toward empirical researches in this framework. Researching in the Full Text
      The emergence and expansion of constructivism as one of the significant conceptual and theoretical frameworks in International Relations in the two last decades was accompanied by an increase in interest toward empirical researches in this framework. Researching in the framework of this approach has some special implications which is unfortunately less followed in current researches and surveys, especially in students’ theses and dissertations. In addition to this, many of the young scholars in the field of International Relations who are theoretically interested in constructivism are in doubt about choosing domains of subjects they can empirically research from this perspective. The purpose of this article is to show The implications of conventional constructivism survey and it's subject domains. The applied method for collecting data in this essay is library-based and depends on the theoretical and meta-theoretical texts and empirical surveys and researches and shows that how can constructivism be a theoretical base for almost all subject domains in the field of International Relations. Manuscript Document
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      81 - Political Theology of Machiavelli; Seeking Metaphysical Bases Political Thought of Machiavelli
      مجتبی  یاور
      The purpose of this study is to find the metaphysical alphabets and suppositions in political thought of Machiavelli; the alphabets which have root in his political thinking and his special status in West Political Thought. In spite of considering Machiavelli thought as Full Text
      The purpose of this study is to find the metaphysical alphabets and suppositions in political thought of Machiavelli; the alphabets which have root in his political thinking and his special status in West Political Thought. In spite of considering Machiavelli thought as the pure realism and to give him titles like the founder of political realism, and to bring him to the threshold of Political positivist (the start of New Era) by many thought scholars, this writing is to show that the empirical reflections of Machiavelli about Politics is under effect of categories which are mainly theological remained from past eras and its strings can be seen in his thought too (like other Renaissance Humanists). It is attempted in this article under three subjects, i.e.: the seminal principle, the connection between Fortuna and Virtu and Belief in Deliverer(Saviourism), to make the theological roots of political thought of Machiavelli clear and propose a theological reading from it. Manuscript Document
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      82 - Islamic Realism and Understanding Modern International Relations
      حسین  سلیمی
      In this article, it is tried to answer two fundamental questions about Islamic attitude in International Relations. First, is there any reality outside of Human mind from Islam view and can human intellect come to understand the real categories? Second is that, is Inter Full Text
      In this article, it is tried to answer two fundamental questions about Islamic attitude in International Relations. First, is there any reality outside of Human mind from Islam view and can human intellect come to understand the real categories? Second is that, is International Relations a real and incontestable issue? If yes, can the intellectual knowledge and understanding of this category be the religious understanding base of International Relations? To answer these questions, among the available different faiths in Islamic and Shi’ism thought, we used the realistic attitude of Allame Tabatabaee and Ayatollah Motahari which they themselves call realism too. It is obvious that the concept of realism in their attitude is different with the current concept of realism among the theories of International Relations for which scientists like Morgenta and Walts are its deputies. This thinking school is concomitant and consistent with a kind of intellectualistic juristic attitude which considers an absolute argumentum for Intellect to understand juristic decrees. Then, It is showed that this attitude believes, not only in the existence of reality and the capability of intellect to comprehend it, but also they believe that the intellectual understanding of human from these incontestable phenomena is the main base for religious knowledge. In the last part of this article, along with a brief review of Modern International Relations foundations, it is showed that the entirety of International Relations and its foundations like nations-states, International organizations and International economy are incontestable issues which are developed in the last two decades and were not existed in lawgiver era and the Islamic attitude is dependent on their intellectual understanding and judgment in new condition. Manuscript Document
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      83 - Evaluating Theoretical sample of Habermas based on the relation of Ethics and Republicanism in Political Thought of Kant
      Iraj Ranjbar  
      Habermas divides political thought into two eras of Classic and Modern, in general, to explain the relation of ethics and politics. In his view, ethics and politics had mutual relations in classic era; but, in the beginning of modern era and with creation of two methodo Full Text
      Habermas divides political thought into two eras of Classic and Modern, in general, to explain the relation of ethics and politics. In his view, ethics and politics had mutual relations in classic era; but, in the beginning of modern era and with creation of two methodological and topical evolutions, classic “political philosophy” was replaced by science or “social philosophy” and this causes the increasing separation of ethics and politics; thus, politics which was an institution to ensure the happiness and salvation of citizens became an institution of management and controlling technique in social relations and human instincts. Habermas extended the abovementioned evolution to Kant’s Ideas, too. The purpose of current article, based on the earmarks and features of Kant political thought, is to prove that the mentioned evolution could not be extended to Kant, since in Kant political thought like classic political thought, politic is the way of development of ethical concepts, with this difference that in Kant thought the concept of “happiness” is replaced with “solipsism” and “perfection”. Manuscript Document
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      84 - The Comparative Review of Reformist and Fundamentalist Currents toward Political Participation of Women in Islamic Republic of Iran (1997-2005)
      Mohammad Abedi Ardakani پروین عظیمی
      Since the victory of Islamic Republic of Iran up to now, there emerged two significant and effective intellectual and political currents. The first current which could be called from intellectual dimension as “Juristic Islamism Current” and from political dimension as “ Full Text
      Since the victory of Islamic Republic of Iran up to now, there emerged two significant and effective intellectual and political currents. The first current which could be called from intellectual dimension as “Juristic Islamism Current” and from political dimension as “Fundamentalism current”, got its climax political power in first and third decades of Islamic Revolution and it still keeps its power today. In contrast, the second current which could be called from intellectual dimension as “religious new thinkers” and from political aspect as the “Reformism current” reached its climax political power in the second decade of Revolution and from then on its is declining. The main purpose of this article is to comparatively review these two currents regarding the issue of women’s rights, particularly in relation to their political participation and its main hypothesis is as follows: “the different intellectual and religious principles of these two currents caused an inconsistency in their position toward the issue of women’s rights, particularly in relation to their political participations. To evaluate this hypothesis, using the descriptive-analytical method, it is tried to review intellectual and religious alphabets of these two currents and compare particularly these two in relation to political participation and family. The findings of this research shows that their attitudes toward the issue of women’s rights have significant differences in one hand, and in other hand, these differences are basically due to their different but inflexible interpretations of religion. Manuscript Document
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      85 - Class Practice and its Effect on Narrative Literature of Iran; Case Study of Reza Baraheni
      Mohamman Reza Sedghi Rezvani حاتم  قادری
      In the contemporary history of Iran, literature was under focus as a framework for expressing social changes particularly after the Iranian’s encountering with Modernity during Constitutional Revolution. Some of Iranian forces and literary activists who had leftist tren Full Text
      In the contemporary history of Iran, literature was under focus as a framework for expressing social changes particularly after the Iranian’s encountering with Modernity during Constitutional Revolution. Some of Iranian forces and literary activists who had leftist trends in their political thought, choose literature as their method and approach in their fighting. Reza Baraheni as an Iranian writer and critic is located in cultural Left in the literary domain of Iran. Before and after the Islamic Revolution of Iran, he produced some works in criticism, poetry, and story which, in one hand, include themes like class practice and, in other hand, shows his commitment toward social and political changes of a society in which he intellectually lives. This commitment is itself based on an epicism based on Leftism; therefore, the present Class practice in Baraheni’s works could be seen as effected by his Epic Leftism. Manuscript Document
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      86 - Institutionalism as a Model for Political Analysis
      حجت  کاظمی
      The gravity point of Institutional analysis is emphasizing on the role of institutions as an independent variable in forming procedures and outcomes of individual and collective actions and social and political phenomena. Contemporary social sciences, due to the dominan Full Text
      The gravity point of Institutional analysis is emphasizing on the role of institutions as an independent variable in forming procedures and outcomes of individual and collective actions and social and political phenomena. Contemporary social sciences, due to the dominance of background-based approaches (in Sociology and Political Sciences) and quantity-based approaches (in Economics), didn’t give due attention to the analysis of institution variable status in forming social, economic and political phenomena. This article, first, attempts to introduce the institutional perspective in social and political analysis, and then introduces the internal reformations and varieties of this approach. The second purpose of this article is to show that historical institutionalism as a kind of neo- Institutionalism can develop an appropriate framework in integrating the Institutionalism and background-based approaches in political analysis, due to its dynamic viewpoint on the category of institutional change. According to this view, although different forms of institutions should be seen as independent variables in forming the social and political actors’ behaviors, these institutions are developed phenomena in the context of social and political historical disputes. Manuscript Document
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      87 - Internet and Radical Democracy: Introduction to the Formation of Radical Virtual Democracy
      میثم  قهرمان مجید  عباس‌زاده مرزبالی
      Pluralist radical democracy of Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe is a way to end any kind of innate thought about political life; a way in which sporadic powers, parallel hegemonies and as a result various discourses are formed. Discourses whose predicates’ capacities t Full Text
      Pluralist radical democracy of Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe is a way to end any kind of innate thought about political life; a way in which sporadic powers, parallel hegemonies and as a result various discourses are formed. Discourses whose predicates’ capacities to satiation and saturating can turn them to hegemonic discourse; but something which seems very important in this radical democracy is that as a result of cultural development due to post-modernism and language games, otherness and plurality in society must be reserved in contest form. Authors believe that against the real world, this kind of contest can be applied in virtual space; hence we call it radical virtual democracy; a radical democracy which has great abilities to affect social and political life; therefore, the main question of this article which we try to answer is that, how is the formation and realization of radical virtual democracy caused by Internet? The hypothesis of the current writing is that the virtual space of Internet with its unique features like hypertext, hyper-network, interactional action and the decentralization of medium power which is assured by two features of access possibility to virtual identity and technical and non-exclusive skilled facilities, has the ability to form radical virtual democracy. Manuscript Document
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      88 - Political Pluralism: In-between Theory and Reality
      محسن عباس‌زاده فرزاد  سوری
      Power, its distribution, and the quality of government relation with citizens and groups and the amount of their influence on the political decision-making processes are of the most fundamental questions encountering politics researchers. The aim of pluralism in status Full Text
      Power, its distribution, and the quality of government relation with citizens and groups and the amount of their influence on the political decision-making processes are of the most fundamental questions encountering politics researchers. The aim of pluralism in status of a theoretical approach toward politics is specification and measurement of these issues; therefore, it defines politics as the arena of competition for different groups who have access to different sources; as a result, no single group can dominate others completely, and political decisions were seen as the outcomes of balance among forces and an open process. After specifying this approach in association with the democratic thought and the comparison of previous and recent conclusions of it, this article reviews its concrete implications in political order so as to assess the accuracy of its analyses in practice; therefore, in answering to this question that do the available political reality assert the theoretical hypotheses of the pluralist approach, it takes an intermediate status (depending on the kind of conclusion from pluralism). Manuscript Document
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      89 - Political Sociological Analysis from Discourse Perspective: Rationale and Epistemological Outcomes
      علي  حسن‌پور Alia shraf  Nazari
      In recent years, due to evolutions like globalization, expansion of communication, and the formation of new social movements, classic concepts of political sociology like state, ideology, power, groups and social system, class and so on undergone deep changes; so that i Full Text
      In recent years, due to evolutions like globalization, expansion of communication, and the formation of new social movements, classic concepts of political sociology like state, ideology, power, groups and social system, class and so on undergone deep changes; so that is seems Marxist theories, positivism and behaviorism theories, Weberian analysis of society and state, elitism, functionalism, pluralism and corporatism all seem to be unable to analyze the contemporary societies. In recent years, the discourse theory could make connections between elements like power, ideology and culture and found many applications in different areas of humanities especially political sciences. It is attempted in this article, after comprehending the discourse theory, the nature of state, the base of social groups’ formation, power, culture, “new social movements” and kinds of discourses quarrel in social area to turn into the hegemonic discourse, to review and analyze the role of subject in political struggles and “status of state” from the perspective political sociology. Some of the most significant results of this study include: the outweighing of culture as the arena of struggle and encounters, attending to “representations”, the plurality of views and interests, desegregation of different areas of society and bringing the power conflict into society and “street” spaces and so on. Manuscript Document
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      90 - Comparative Review of Theoretical Possibilities of Applying Theories of Cultural Variety (Liberalism, Post-Liberalism, Relativism, and Communitarianism)
        سید جواد امام جمعه
      Against predictions and despite the progressive developments in communication technologies, not only contemporary human societies are not becoming completely homogeneous, but also the identities, different life styles and also ethical and religious minorities which were Full Text
      Against predictions and despite the progressive developments in communication technologies, not only contemporary human societies are not becoming completely homogeneous, but also the identities, different life styles and also ethical and religious minorities which were up to some decades ago in danger of extinction and losing their identities forever, they are raising again using today facilities and technologies and attempt to express their modes of distinction for others and hence, they can preserve their right to protect their traditions and act based on them for themselves. In this arena, the quality of interactions and mutual and just relations between identities, cultures, minorities and majorities with each other is an issue for which different theories are provided, most of which are taken from the liberal culture and their normative dimensions is related to society and culture. The current article attempts to understand this issue that which of these theories have more theoretical possibilities to become operational in multi-cultural societies? In this comparative and critical review of the most significant approaches and theories of cultural variety like liberal, post-liberal, relativism, and Communitarianism, it seems that Communitarianism approach may have more theoretical possibilities to become operational in multi-cultural societies. The current research applied the descriptive and analytic method and library resources to answer its question. Manuscript Document
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      91 - Theoretical Explanation of “Soft Power” based on Ultra-“Nye” approach in Applying “Immaterial Resources of Power” in Foreign Policy1
      asghar کیوان حسینی راحله  جمعه‌زاده
      The Concept of Soft Power introduced by Joseph Nye in late eighties has comprised most parts of works related to immaterial approach toward power (especially in relation to USA). The significant point is that the exclusive position of this kind of “Nye-Based attitude” w Full Text
      The Concept of Soft Power introduced by Joseph Nye in late eighties has comprised most parts of works related to immaterial approach toward power (especially in relation to USA). The significant point is that the exclusive position of this kind of “Nye-Based attitude” which caused other ideas and comments related to explicating quality of soft application of power to be neglected and forgotten though they have high priorities in foreign policy (like the theory of just war, the conclusion of democratic peace, Post-Grameci interpretation of Dominance and so on). This study, based on the explication of software dimension along with the Nye ideas, attempts to emphasize this meaning that along the process of theorizing international relations, Nye’s view is just one of the theories which emphasizes the soft mode of power and we must follow an Ultra-Nye sample. Manuscript Document
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      92 - Political Implications of Abbas Kiarostami'Cinema
      سيد محسن علوي‌پور عباس منوچهری
      According to the known definition, Political Cinema is the one for which special political issues, as a political event, biography, or process is the matter. However, it seems that such a definition is not inclusive enough to cover the films which focus on the normative Full Text
      According to the known definition, Political Cinema is the one for which special political issues, as a political event, biography, or process is the matter. However, it seems that such a definition is not inclusive enough to cover the films which focus on the normative aspects of politics, while not necessarily narrating a special political matter. Thus, reflecting on this definition, it is needed to discover and categorize the characteristics of normative political cinema. Reviewing Abbas Kiarostami’s films, the present study attempts to identify such characteristics. Manuscript Document
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      93 - Representation of Ideas of Kantian ethical Philosophy in Political Thought of John Rawls
        نعیمه  اسدی‌پور
      John Rawls is affected by Kant's ethical philosophy and the representation of Kant's ethical philosophy can be seen in his works. In this paper, in order to reveal the legacy of Kant for Rawls political theory, three subjects are surveyed: humanism, ethical alternative Full Text
      John Rawls is affected by Kant's ethical philosophy and the representation of Kant's ethical philosophy can be seen in his works. In this paper, in order to reveal the legacy of Kant for Rawls political theory, three subjects are surveyed: humanism, ethical alternative and constructivism. In humanism, the ideas of Kant and Rawls stress on the human. Kant considered the human as a goal not as an instrument. This issue in the thought of the two can provide an ethical alternative against teleological morality is described deontological morality. Kant and Rawls tried to establish suitable relation between the concept of the free and equal individual and the concept of justice, as they create their own constructivism. In this article, we have tried to explain political philosophy and ideas of Kantian Ethics in Rawls political philosophy by normative method. Manuscript Document
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      94 - Language, Power and Ideology in Norman Fairclough’s ‘Critical’ Approach to Discourse Analysis
      جهانگیر  جهانگیری علی  بندرریگی‌زاده
      Critical discourse analysis (CDA) started in the early 1990s and has become a well-established field in the social science in the twenty-first century .CDA can be defined as a problem-oriented interdisciplinary research program. In general, power, and especially institu Full Text
      Critical discourse analysis (CDA) started in the early 1990s and has become a well-established field in the social science in the twenty-first century .CDA can be defined as a problem-oriented interdisciplinary research program. In general, power, and especially institutionally reproduced power, is central to CDA. The purpose of CDA is to analyze opaque as well as transparent structural relationships of dominance, discrimination, power and control as manifested in language. CDA states that discourse is an instrument of power. The way this instrument of power works is often hard to understand, and CDA aims to make it more visible and transparent. A critical discourse analysis should not be a discourse analysis that reacts against power alone. It should be an analysis of power effects, of the outcome of power, of what power does to people, groups, and societies, and of how this impact comes about. The deepest effect of power everywhere is inequality, as power differentiates and selects, includes and excludes. CDA is an approach to the analysis of discourse which views language as a social practice and is interested in the ways that ideologies and power relations are expressed through language. It wants to understand how language is used to create, maintain and challenge power relationships and ideologies. Norman Fairclough is one of the most famous thinkers of CDA. He seeks to develop ways of analyzing language which address its involvement in the working of contemporary capitalist societies. He is working in a tradition of critical social research which is focused on better understanding of how and why contemporary capitalism prevents or limits, as well as in certain respects facilitating, human well-being and flourishing. Such understanding may, in favorable circumstances, contribute to overcoming or at least mitigating these obstacles and limits. Manuscript Document
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      95 - Pluralist Democracy in Shariati's Point of view
        مجيد سفري دوغایی
      With explaining his view in regard to nature and role of human in social processes particularly democracy, and offering evidences of shariati’s Collections and with describing democracy theories particularly Pluralistic democracy, and finally comparing and corresponding Full Text
      With explaining his view in regard to nature and role of human in social processes particularly democracy, and offering evidences of shariati’s Collections and with describing democracy theories particularly Pluralistic democracy, and finally comparing and corresponding them with together, this paper revealed that shariati not only have not any disagreement about democracy, but also find temporary the committed democracy and convinced to Pluralistic democracy. Manuscript Document
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      96 - Ideal political Society in Sheikh Mohammed Ismail Mahallati' Political Thought
      mohamad ali tavana Mahmoud Alipour
      It seems that every political thought in itself, contains an ideal political society. This ideal society can be apparent, such as Farabi' utopia or the hidden and latent, Such as Sohrevardi' ideal society. Theorizing About political ideal is result of social and politic Full Text
      It seems that every political thought in itself, contains an ideal political society. This ideal society can be apparent, such as Farabi' utopia or the hidden and latent, Such as Sohrevardi' ideal society. Theorizing About political ideal is result of social and political crisis. One of the most turbulent periods in the history of Iran is Qajar era, which is faced with different crisis such as absolute power and colonialism. This crisis led to contemplate the many thinkers and each according self- effort to have a response to this crisis. One of the thinkers is Sheikh Mohammed Ismail Mahallati that his political thought is less considered. It seems that he answers to this crisis and his political ideal is different from other thinkers in this era. Accordingly, the central question of this paper is that: What is the Mahallati specific reply to crisis of constitutionalism era? And how is his ideal political society? What are its features? And Finally, What relationship exists between justice and public interest in his ideal society. Manuscript Document
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      97 - History of Ideas, Intellectual History and Political Studies
      سيد صادق  حقيقت
      History of ideas which deals with explanation and evolution of ideas during history can be considered as part of, or similar to, intellectual history. Unlike Lovejoy, Quentin Skinner analyzes "idea" in the historical and social conditions. Although these two fields of s Full Text
      History of ideas which deals with explanation and evolution of ideas during history can be considered as part of, or similar to, intellectual history. Unlike Lovejoy, Quentin Skinner analyzes "idea" in the historical and social conditions. Although these two fields of study belong to discipline of history, they have used in political thought too. Meanwhile, Cambridge school of thought, and specially Skinner, has tried to bridge between analytic and continental philosophy in one hand, and between Textualism and Contextualism on the other hand. This could be called "The third way" or "confluence of Textualism and Contextualism". Using "the third way", It seems that (Islamic and Iranian) political studies could overcome detects of the two ways. Manuscript Document
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      98 - The Concept of "Self" and its Relation to Political Action in Hannah Arendt and Herbert Marcuse
      Mohammad Abedi Ardakani Mahmoud Alipour
      In connection with concept the self, There is abundant writings and works. Nevertheless, one of the definitions of the Self, Especially in modernist and postmodernist attitude, refers to space of independent and autonomous activism of subject, as can be seen in the Phra Full Text
      In connection with concept the self, There is abundant writings and works. Nevertheless, one of the definitions of the Self, Especially in modernist and postmodernist attitude, refers to space of independent and autonomous activism of subject, as can be seen in the Phrase like Self-advancing, depend on themselves and did itself. Basically, the self concept among political thinkers is frequently observed. Two of the thinkers of the twentieth century that with this understanding of self have written, are Hannah Arendt and Herbert Marcuse. On one hand, by introducing the concept of "human diversity”, Arendt follows idea that introduce humans as self (subject) and reveal as distinct and free existent. And finally, this approach connects with the concept of action to introduce the human self as designator in the political system. On the other hand, is Herbert Marcuse that in One-Dimensional Man' book, is looking activation humans as active and independent selves from the grip of a kind of continuity that capitalist society has created. Therefore, as long as there is the continuity, Political action is also limited. Basically, common feature between Arendt and Marcuse can be noted to their efforts in activating the Human minds or selves and its connection to political activism. Fundamentally distinct concepts of self, in the Arendt and Marcuse thought, compared to the previous political philosophy, is that self in philosophy, is highly dependent on power, domination, Technology and Media. But these thinkers, with the connection of the subject to political action, attempt to renew subject, political activism. Manuscript Document
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      99 - The Possibility of Paradigm Analysis in Political Philosophy of Farabi
      منصور میراحمدی میثم  قهرمان
      So far, the political philosophy of Farabi has been thoroughly studied from different perspective; however, paradigm analysis is one of the approaches which are considerably influential and practical in this regard. The aim of present research isto investigate the possi Full Text
      So far, the political philosophy of Farabi has been thoroughly studied from different perspective; however, paradigm analysis is one of the approaches which are considerably influential and practical in this regard. The aim of present research isto investigate the possibility of paradigm analysis in political philosophy of Farabi; in other words, we will examine whether five-aspect analysis and presuppositions of Farabi would able the researchers to have a paradigm analysis or not. The study hypothesis says that this matter is possible since such an analysis not only distinguishes the principles of ontology, epistemology, anthropology, sociology (knowledge of community)and teleology, but it also enables the depiction of a meaningfully logical line among these factors and consequently among the components of the political philosophy of Farabi. Manuscript Document
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      100 - Political Utilitarianism andTheo-democracy
      عبدالمجید  مبلغی
      The Paper investigates an epistemological question: is political utilitarianism adoptable with Theo-democracy? To find an answer for the question, itprovidesthe reader with abrief exploration of the history of political utilitarianism. Based on it, as the second step, i Full Text
      The Paper investigates an epistemological question: is political utilitarianism adoptable with Theo-democracy? To find an answer for the question, itprovidesthe reader with abrief exploration of the history of political utilitarianism. Based on it, as the second step, ittries to illustrate how political utilitarianism,especially according to John Stuart Mill’s approach,is adaptablewith the theory of Theo-democracy.The claim has been relied heavily over this judgment: Anutilitarian governmentcan be created evenwhen we accept a priority to amoral system.The paper tries to demonstratehow this epistemological judgment iscontrary to an understanding that there is no chance for adaptability between Islam and a set of moral codespresented via a taken political utility. Based on this approach, it tries to showpolitical utility is not necessarily and always an anti-religious theory. Manuscript Document
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      101 - The Possibilitiesof Information Technology in Political Sphere
      روح‌الله اسلامی
      Information technology is a revolution that changes all aspects of human life. The political sphere is also in the process of fundamental changes in the age information. In this article, we describe and analysis the technology asinfrastructure for humanbehavior. Technol Full Text
      Information technology is a revolution that changes all aspects of human life. The political sphere is also in the process of fundamental changes in the age information. In this article, we describe and analysis the technology asinfrastructure for humanbehavior. Technology not also instrument that help human to change environment, but is a worldview that shapes the culture and all the meanings of life. This article examineschanges in political sphere and relation powers in the information age with an optimistic logic. The question this research is that what is the possibility of information technology in political sphere? To entrance cyberfield in politics, some subjects arevisible, for example cyber war, digital democracy, and electric citizen and E-government. Manuscript Document
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      102 - Iran’s intellectuals in Qajar era and the Transition Possibilityfrom "Government-oriented Pattern" to the "State-oriented Pattern
      مهدی کاظمی زمهریر
      In the ancient time, the government was at the center of theories, with consideration to the given religious nature of political community and desirable arrangement. By the entrance of modern thoughts into Iranian world in Qajar era, we witnessed the destruction of thes Full Text
      In the ancient time, the government was at the center of theories, with consideration to the given religious nature of political community and desirable arrangement. By the entrance of modern thoughts into Iranian world in Qajar era, we witnessed the destruction of these beliefs and the need to rethink about them. The intellectuals were in charge of these affairs. How much they were successful in rethinking of these beliefs? The intellectuals faced with practical obstacles in the inherited beliefs from ancient time. So like the ancient thinkers, they set the right use of political authority as the main subject in their theories, Instead of addressing the foundations of political community and government. However,to rethink political orders and the application of political powers by the government was not possible without knowing about the nature of political community. So with reception of implicit theory about political community and by the use of “common good” and “general rights” by intellectuals, they rethought about dominion theory and the relation between religion and political order and stated a new theory about government. But the result was a gradual tension between the old beliefs and the new beliefs of political order and the appearance of juridical modern political theories. Although these theories tried to resist against new political order, But for the first time, instead of characteristics of an ideal ruler, they had to pay attention to the nature of political community. So the appearance of intellectual thought could put the query of government’s nature and political community in the center of political theories of Iran’s thinkers, and pave the way for gradual transition from "Government-oriented pattern" to the "State-oriented pattern" of political theories. Manuscript Document
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      103 - The Presence of Iranshahri Political Thought in Islamic Period
      ahmad bostani
      Iranshahri political thought is one of the most significant features of Iranian intellectual tradition. Rooted in ancient Iranian tradition of kingdom, this political doctrine presents a conception of political rule which is different from classical Islamic political ph Full Text
      Iranshahri political thought is one of the most significant features of Iranian intellectual tradition. Rooted in ancient Iranian tradition of kingdom, this political doctrine presents a conception of political rule which is different from classical Islamic political philosophy inspired by Greek philosophers. Although the source of this doctrine is pre-Islamic Iranian civilization, one can claim that it has been continued in different forms and we can follow its traces left everywhere in Iranian intellectual history from the beginning to the present.So, study of this tradition requires a specific method of research which could explain transformation and unity of its elements. This paper aims to study the various versions of iranshahri political thought in Islamic period, especially in its middle ages, and to show different aspects of it crystallized in Muslim thinker’s political treatises. The theory of “cultural continuation of Persia” constitutes the theoretical foundation of this research and try to elucidate Islamic conceptions of iranshahri political doctrine, and “Farr” as its key concept, in the light of this theory suggested by leading figures like H. Corbin and R. Frye. We claim that the versions of iranshahri political thought in Islamic civilization can be divided in five main categories representing five conceptions of Farr -e- izadi. These five categories are represented in epic poems, mystic texts, philosophical treatises, Illuminationist wisdom and Iranian mirrors for princes. Manuscript Document
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      104 - A Critical Study of Class-based Analysis about Election Behavior of New Middle Class (Iran’s Presidential Elections Seventh (1995) and Ninth (2003) Periods)
      سعید میرترابی سيد مهدي  ميرعباسي
      Between 1995 and 2003 many of critical factors for development of new middle class like economic growth, expansion of cities, improvement of education and literacy,development of political institutions and state bureaucracy and so… continued to growth and, as a result, Full Text
      Between 1995 and 2003 many of critical factors for development of new middle class like economic growth, expansion of cities, improvement of education and literacy,development of political institutions and state bureaucracy and so… continued to growth and, as a result, we can expect for a larger middle class in this period. On the other hand, in many of class-based analyses about presidential elections results in 1995 and 1999 in Iran, scholars focused on new and recently developed middle class role in shaping election results and victories of slogans about political development. But in presidential election in 2003 (in first round) candidate who represents political development slogans lost and in second round despite of heavily rally of Reformists in support of rival candidate, winner candidate has no any relation to political wishes that usually respect to new middle class. The article, tries to explain this dilemma and shows that ”there is a structural condition that can called “Rentier state” economic structure in Iran that constrains class-based analyses in explaining election behavior of new middle class and in forecasting election results.Wecannot stress heavily on factors that relate to quantitative expansion of middle class and its role on shaping elections wishes of different groups in society.”The article stresses on structural factors related to political economy of oil in shaping social layers in oil rich countries and shows how these factors help shaping a special middle class that necessarily have not those characteristics and wishes that is relate to this social group in standard theories of political development. Manuscript Document
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      105 - Discourse Analysis of Iran and Iraq War
      Heidar شهریاری
      Islamic revolution that provided a new discourse in Iran socio-political area carrying a new discourse in foreign policy too that it contained concepts like against-arrogance (Istekbarsetizi), Jihad, poor government and … . but it did not take long from beginning that I Full Text
      Islamic revolution that provided a new discourse in Iran socio-political area carrying a new discourse in foreign policy too that it contained concepts like against-arrogance (Istekbarsetizi), Jihad, poor government and … . but it did not take long from beginning that Iran encountered a destructive war from Iraq’s Baath’s regime that analyzing, explaining and interpreting it in different theories and approaches, can indicates its different aspects. In line with it, the main question is that what is the reason of occurring Iran-Iraq war? The forward hypothesis is that the area and context of conflict among Islamism discourse in Iran’s foreign policy and geopolitics discourse in Iraq’s foreign policy, on the one hand, and the conception and interpreting of Iraq’s commanders about Islamism discourse and its existing situation, on the other hand, caused the occurrence. The findings of this essay that is in form of library and documental method indicate that antagonism of Iraq’s geopolitics discourse (with revolution exportation contrast, Pan-Arabism and security signifiers) toward Islamism discourse of Islamic revolution (with revolution exportation, fighting against arrogance and national interestssignifiers) is clearly observable and what made Iraq as the war beginner, was Iraq’s officials conception aboutIran’s political instability situations at that time and the opposite discourse conflict with Iraq’s discourse. Manuscript Document
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      106 - Explanation of Political and Rational Requirements for National Unity In Imam Khomeini's Thought
       
      In Imam Khomeini's thoughts and attitudes thatget startedfrommonotheistic religion of Islam, believers are a singleummah and,too, they need to a singlereligious, political and practicalorientation, based on the requirements and with regard to their common destiny within Full Text
      In Imam Khomeini's thoughts and attitudes thatget startedfrommonotheistic religion of Islam, believers are a singleummah and,too, they need to a singlereligious, political and practicalorientation, based on the requirements and with regard to their common destiny within the credit geographical and national boundaries for the realization of the their sovereignty. They can achieve the caliphate of God on earth with this orientation and with Etesami to Hablallah. Therefore, in this article, we examine what arepolitical and rationalfoundations in the views of Imam Khomeini about national unity. The analytical study of the ideas of Imam Khomeini (RA), show to our until find that the issue of national unity as well as other forms of unity and solidarity based on political exigencies and environmental requirements is a necessity: the necessity thatit is based on both of rational arguments and evidence and religious arguments.As a result, Imam Khomeini hastwo-dimensional look - intellectual and revelation - to the cause of unity.But what are discussed in this paperare the reasons and political arguments of national unity and solidarity in the thought of the founder ofIslamic Republic of Iran.Imam Khomeini emphasized on: rational evident of unity, the demand of political reason, the common enemy, the development of cultural, political and social principles of maintenance of the Islamic Revolution and its values and Finally, national unity is the plan as a strategy to achieve freedom, liberation and victory. Manuscript Document
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      107 - The Relationship BetweenTruth and Politics in Fardid's Thought
      حاتم  قادری مسعود  غفاري محرم  طاهرخانی
      One of the most important philosophical and mystical concepts which Ahmad Fardid had brought up theorizing about it under the title of theosophy, is the concept of truth.the concept of truth is so important for Fardid that it embraces his whole contemplative atmospher Full Text
      One of the most important philosophical and mystical concepts which Ahmad Fardid had brought up theorizing about it under the title of theosophy, is the concept of truth.the concept of truth is so important for Fardid that it embraces his whole contemplative atmosphere about all subjects from cosmology to theology and anthropology.In other word, one of the most basic subjects for becoming familiar with philosophical, mystical and political thoughts in Fardid's viewpoint knows the truth. However, on the other way,Fardid isn't considered political philosopher specifically. His viewpoint about history can have political consequences. So, issues relate to society and politics would be considered precious, moral and noteworthy to the extent to which they are connected to the truth and if political philosophy couldnot get near to the truth of the subject under investigation, it would become subject to criticism and in some cases being rejected. In theorizing the theosophy of history, Fardid makes a complicated and impregnable connection between the truth and politics and considers understanding of the truth prior to knowing the political subject. So he represents a new definition of politics which has been less taken into interpretation. The most important political implication of truth in Fardid theosophy viewpoint is to ignore and pay no attention to political action which causes the change in the essence and meaning of the political and causes the transformation and conversion of political action into mystical andspiritual act. The present text describes and interprets Fardid's thought in the case of truth and investigates the relationship and influence of this key concept in Fardid's theosophy and spiritual history on the political and political action. Manuscript Document
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      108 - The Impact of Globalization on Distributional Function of Rentier’State
      In this essay, we try to explain the distributional function of rentier state and it’s consequences in the present world or, in the other words, globalization waves expansion and transformation in all of the international and internal aspects. We will consider that the Full Text
      In this essay, we try to explain the distributional function of rentier state and it’s consequences in the present world or, in the other words, globalization waves expansion and transformation in all of the international and internal aspects. We will consider that the crisis in the distributional function of rentier state is, in fact, the crisis in social context of establishing state and, in the other words, the crisis in legitimizing- foundations for this political systems of these countries. In general, those of the rentier states can continue to live and resist to collapse if they can establish suitable institutions for getting taxes from society, transforming economical structures and accounting to social demands and therefore promoting procedural legitimacy in parallel with the revolutions. In fact, the rentier government resulting from these revolutions cannot preserve their previous function and we can’t be labeled as rentier states. Manuscript Document
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      109 - Globalization and Penetration Crisis in Islamic Republic of Iran
      حسن  آب‌نیکی
      The crisis is the one of crucial concepts in political and social science and all of the states confront with it somehow. The states should test different strategies for solving the crisis. Because, unfamiliarity with the crisis can confront the state with different ins Full Text
      The crisis is the one of crucial concepts in political and social science and all of the states confront with it somehow. The states should test different strategies for solving the crisis. Because, unfamiliarity with the crisis can confront the state with different institutional and non-institutional problems and make their legitimacy and efficiency unstable. Islamic Republic of Iran is one of these states and we want to survey globalization’s critical effect on its efficiency with reference to penetration’s crisis in this research. In fact, we tend to explain how globalization can produce penetration’s crisis in Islamic Republic of Iran. The used method is descriptive-analytical and used for the clarification of the problem from institutionalism view point. Manuscript Document
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      110 - Philosophical Critique of Cultural Essentialism in the Theory of the Clash of Civilizations
      اصغر ميرفردي علیرضا  سمیعی اصفهانی آرش  موسوی
      This research is a philosophical critique of Samuel Huntington’s The Clash of Civilizations and, an important theory in current discourse on international relations. According to Huntington, the world can be divided into several distinct civilizations and civilization b Full Text
      This research is a philosophical critique of Samuel Huntington’s The Clash of Civilizations and, an important theory in current discourse on international relations. According to Huntington, the world can be divided into several distinct civilizations and civilization beliefs/values will determine how countries will act towards each other. By drawing upon philosophical critique as a theoretical stance and methodological path, the text of Huntington’s theory was analyzed. In this theory, cultural essentialism can be found in two forms: monoculturalism and multiculturalism. While the research aims to identify specific discursive patterns, open them to criticism, and explain their existence in the text, it also discusses questions related to understanding of the nature, form and function of the clash of civilization discourse. Compacted within the theory is the ideology of cultural essentialism in their two components. The first is that there is a core set of basic beliefs that remains immutably important through time. The second is people of similar cultural background resort to these values, even if they migrate to other countries and in times of crisis, relative countries and emigrants will unite together. The findings show the leaders and their policies, rather than covert cultural beliefs are determining in political interaction and evolution. When a country’s culture values are seen as determining the actions of its political leaders, the importance of individual leadership and the supervisory power of nations are underestimated. Manuscript Document
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      111 - Semantic and Structural Dimensions of Decision- making in Islamic Republic of Iran’ Foreign policy
      غلامعلی  سلیمانی Sayed Jalal Dehghani Firozabadi
      Along with the victory of Islamic Revolution, a fundamental change has occurred in Iran's foreign policy. But neglecting the domain of foreign policy and international relations in the study of the role of political system domain, confront the foreign policy study domai Full Text
      Along with the victory of Islamic Revolution, a fundamental change has occurred in Iran's foreign policy. But neglecting the domain of foreign policy and international relations in the study of the role of political system domain, confront the foreign policy study domain of Islamic Republic Of Iran with special difficulties that in fact leads to the weakness in conceptualization in this domain. With regard to the area of foreign policy analysis and the achievements of this sub-domain, this article aims to answer these basic questions that: what is the Islamic Republic of Iran’s foreign policy decision-making model? Answering this question requires considering different effective levels in the analysis of foreign policy that the present study , examines this subject in three levels of decision-maker, decision-making structure and decision-making orientation of foreign policy as main effective elements in foreign policy decision-making and their role in foreign policy decision-making , hoping that it can illustrate the action and decision-making logic and also effective structural and organizational factors affecting on the Islamic republic of iran’s foreign policy. Manuscript Document
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      112 - Arabic Revolutions and Shaping New Security Orders In Middle East
      فاطمه  قیاسوندی نبی‌الله  ابراهیمی احمد  سلطانی‌نژاد
      The main argument of this article is to analyze the Islamic Awakening developments and the way new security disciplines development in Middle East is affected by this event. Since the revolution of people in Arab states is known as uprising against dictator governments Full Text
      The main argument of this article is to analyze the Islamic Awakening developments and the way new security disciplines development in Middle East is affected by this event. Since the revolution of people in Arab states is known as uprising against dictator governments and Colonial, it can be an important factor for redefining the novel disciplines in the region which considering Saidism or after- colonial elements and the correspondence among these revolutions and this study, we testify the formation of the type of order focused on reviewing Saidism studies in Middle East. So in this article first of all, we analyze disciplines from the perspective of realism, liberalism, Copenhagen school and post colonial and then the Genealogy of disciplines in Middle East. Islamist role has been also discussed and article is finished by a discussion about the security disciplines governing on the region after the Arabic revolutions, so we can conclude how Arabic revolutions have effects on the formation of new security discipline of Middle East. Manuscript Document
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      113 - The Effect of Globalization on Citizenship Rights in Iran
       
      In the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, special attention has been given to the “citizen rights”, so that it disregards color, race, and language as regards these rights. It also requires the government to regard these rights for all its citizens. Now that Full Text
      In the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, special attention has been given to the “citizen rights”, so that it disregards color, race, and language as regards these rights. It also requires the government to regard these rights for all its citizens. Now that the different aspects of the nations’ life all over the world is apparently being affected by the globalization. Citizen right is one of the domains influenced by globalization. This paper argued that the globalization has a converse relationship with human-participatory` rights , but it has a direct and converse relationship with political and social rights. Manuscript Document
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      114 - Explanation of the ratio between social gap and national unity in Iran
       
      Maintaining and strengthening national unity and integrity is one of the most important priorities of all political systems, because increasing the correlation coefficient can lead to reducing internal and external threats and providing good grounds for development and Full Text
      Maintaining and strengthening national unity and integrity is one of the most important priorities of all political systems, because increasing the correlation coefficient can lead to reducing internal and external threats and providing good grounds for development and progress of the country. Iran is one of the countries that by relying on its historical background and civilization can overcome on the divergence challenges, throughout centuries. So despite, the occupation of this country and abstraction of some parts of vast territory by aliens at some historical sections, in recent decades,it continued to be a powerful and independent political unit with pervasive sovereignty. National unity and solidarity have been more exposed to domestic challenges and external threats and among them, the most important domestic challenge is the activation of some social gaps at some profiles of time. This article inevitably focuses on the role of external threats in weakening national unity on domestic factors and tries to investigate the ratio of four major social gap in Iran (generation gap, gender, ethnic and religious gap)with different dimensions of national unity ( religious, territorial, political, cultural, social dimensions). The used method in this article is secondary analysis method of research findings and studied period is between 2001-2011. The obtained results show that in this time period, there is no serious disagreement between two ends of spectrums oriented to social gaps about the various aspects of national unity and national convergence in Iran has benefited from a good level. Manuscript Document
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      115 - A Non-totalitarian Idea of Human "Communality"
      مهدی  نصر
      The concept of "human communality" is the most neglected notion in the contemporary individualistic world. Interpreting some concepts of Heidegger's thought such as 'Being-with', 'community' and 'ekstasis', this essay intends to show that "communality" is one of the mai Full Text
      The concept of "human communality" is the most neglected notion in the contemporary individualistic world. Interpreting some concepts of Heidegger's thought such as 'Being-with', 'community' and 'ekstasis', this essay intends to show that "communality" is one of the main structures of man regarded as Dasein. Although we confess that each of us has a singular and unique existence, this fact cannot be disregarded that "language" determines the totality of mankind. The fluid process of "communality" is "giving something a name". Giving names to the things by language is the action that puts together things in a world. The symmetry of this action also happens in politics as "communality"; in politics, people are located beside each other. But the concept of the political issue in the West suppresses the singularities and others and imposes the subjectivistic structures on western man. Therefore, the occident is unable to think about "communality". Manuscript Document
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      116 - Language and Politics: Pragmatic and Strategic Aspects of Language in Imam Khomeini's Leadership in the Process of Islamic Revolution in Iran
      سید رضا  شاكري
      Islamic revolution realized in Iran under the leadership of a religious leader. Although the leader was in exile but he had strong connections with his followers despite his deprivation of communication means. This issue in this paper is the basis of reviewing the relat Full Text
      Islamic revolution realized in Iran under the leadership of a religious leader. Although the leader was in exile but he had strong connections with his followers despite his deprivation of communication means. This issue in this paper is the basis of reviewing the relationship between language and politics; so the paper tries to explain pragmatic and strategic aspects of language in Imam Khomeini's leadership in the process of Islamic revolution. In the field of study of relationship between language and politics, there are two general approaches: politics as theory and knowledge and politics as power and the realm of collective action to sustain or to change the current situation. This paper, by focusing on the second approach and by using the theories of language competence and language pragmatics in the realm of media and in mobilization of mass, will try to examine influential functions and pragmatic aspects of language in Imam Khomeini's thoughts. The findings indicate that Imam Khomeini as a scholar in mystics, ethics and jurisprudence and by his own classification of Islamic sciences introduced the pragmatism as the core of those sciences and used the language along political and revolutionary actions. Mobilizing the mass, criticizing and opposing the current situation and inviting the people to realize the Islamic state are among Imam Khomeini's pragmatic aspects of leadership. Manuscript Document
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      117 - Comparison of Authoritarian Government and the Relationship of People with Government in Ghazali and Hobbes
      mohamad ali tavana farzad azarkamand
      This article studies the basics of forming powerful government and the relationship between people with government in Ghazali and Hobbes thought. Special view of both of the thinkers to nature of human is intellectual foundation of forming authoritative government. Acco Full Text
      This article studies the basics of forming powerful government and the relationship between people with government in Ghazali and Hobbes thought. Special view of both of the thinkers to nature of human is intellectual foundation of forming authoritative government. According to the four human traits, Ghazali tries to educate the divine human that acts passively under divine governance. Since religion and politics don’t separate from each other in Ghazali’s view, so in government, divinity of these traits joins to politics and powerful government. But Hobbes believed that human have power demand and warrior nature in addition, in primary and natural human condition, the war has been going on against each other. And human try to rescue themselves according to their wisdom. So, they established an authoritative government with their foresight. Therefore, the subject of both of them is largely same, but their processing is different. It means that both of these intellectuals lived in restless period, and the necessity of security causes them to resort to authoritative government. On the other hand, both of these intellectuals assign passive roles for people; however, Ghazali’s argumentation method is canonical and Hobbes’s method is rational. Moreover it seems that the rational theory of Hobbes – accepting the possibility of insurgence-paves the way for going beyond the authoritative government, although the canonical theory of Hobbes leads to one type of reproduction of authoritative government. Manuscript Document
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      118 - From Class Paradox to Discursive Gap: Reviewing the Classic Marxist from Laclau and Mouffe Post-marxist View
        سید صدرا  حسینی
      Any school of thought throughout its history undergoes many changes and fluctuations. The complexity of the recent modern capitalist societies made the new Marxists to revive the opponents’ position of capitalist system. Laclau and Mouffe are among post-Marxists who are Full Text
      Any school of thought throughout its history undergoes many changes and fluctuations. The complexity of the recent modern capitalist societies made the new Marxists to revive the opponents’ position of capitalist system. Laclau and Mouffe are among post-Marxists who are engaged in this attempt. Their criticism of the classical Marxism is due to its dogmatic features and its one-sided and biased analyses. By proposing the concepts of discourse, articulation, mobile identities, hegemony and discursive gaps and conflicts, Laclau and Mouffe try to compensate for the one-sidedness of Classical Marxism which summarizes in economic determinism, class identities, class struggles, and social class gap. These changes are made to increase the effectiveness of Marxism in their analysis of recent modern and complex capitalist societies. The aim of this article is to survey the process of change of Classical Marxist thoughts to Laclau and Mouffe’s post-Marxism. Firstly, there will be a discussion about decentralization of the society following the Post-Marxist perspective, which substitutes the economic determinism in the formation of social order, and secondly, the study points to the idea of antagonism which is a shared concept in both Marxism and Post-Marxism views. The Classical Marxism viewed politics as the class conflict which is lost in the ultimate Communism of class conflict that resulted in a classless society. However, Laclau and Mouffe’s post-marxism points to the endless political conflict and considers it as an everlasting element of the society, and it deems the radical democratic policy as an element that preserves such a conflict. Manuscript Document
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      119 - Imam Khomeini`s Epistemology and Political Thoughts Focusing on Velayat Faghih Principle
      مسعود بيات داوود بيات
      Undoubtedly, political thoughts bears frameworks and basis without which one can`t recognize correct knowledge of them. In this regard, Imam Khomeini`s thoughts are not exception. Thus researcher in this paper attempts to investigate its effects on Imam Khomeini’s polit Full Text
      Undoubtedly, political thoughts bears frameworks and basis without which one can`t recognize correct knowledge of them. In this regard, Imam Khomeini`s thoughts are not exception. Thus researcher in this paper attempts to investigate its effects on Imam Khomeini’s political thought which are manifested in Velayat Faqih thought. As a thesis it seems that Imam Khomeini, based on Spiritual-Gnostic insight inspired from Mollasadra thoughts, considers politics beneath the religious principles and he attempts to define piety and it`s requirements that which covers politics as a part of his duties. Practical result of such combination is devoting practical politics field and statesmanship to Juris consults and theologians as Velayat Faghih form. In his insight, Islamic governor shall obey justice as much as possible since it`s requirement for governance and guardianship and despotism makes us fall from it. Thus focusing on governor’s responsibility before public, he denies dictatorship and autocracy. In this research, we utilized note taking and library study to gather data and epistemological methodology and thought interpretation based on rational structures and requirements as a part of intellectual approach as a research method. Manuscript Document
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      120 - The Connection between Spiritual Authority and Temporal Power in Traditional Thought: Examination of Seyyed Hossein Nasr's Views on Religious Government
      حسين  خندق‌آبادي
      His background of executive activity as a statesman caused Seyyed Hossein Nasr’s thought to be linked with secularism. Examining his background in this context is not separate from his basis of thought rooted in his traditionalist procedures. Valid connection between sp Full Text
      His background of executive activity as a statesman caused Seyyed Hossein Nasr’s thought to be linked with secularism. Examining his background in this context is not separate from his basis of thought rooted in his traditionalist procedures. Valid connection between spiritual authority and temporal power that is one of elements of Traditionalist thoughts, backing Nasr's thought on religious governing. According to religious doctrines that are in contrast with western thoughts, Nasr believes that religion, especially Islam, cannot be separated from the governing realm. This article tries to study Nasr’s theoretical reasons against secularism, i.e. separation of religion and government. Also it shows that how Nasr explains this subject causes someone thinks that there are rooms for influence of secularism in his thought and oppose with him. Manuscript Document
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      121 - Discursive Analysis of Apartheid in Israel
      محمدحسن  شیخ الاسلامی صارم  شیراوند ميلاد اديب سرشكي
      Apartheid means separation and segregation and separate development of geographically diverse ethnic groups. In light of the passage of liberal and Marxist theories of discourse analysis, this article reviews the nature of apartheid policies in the occupied territories Full Text
      Apartheid means separation and segregation and separate development of geographically diverse ethnic groups. In light of the passage of liberal and Marxist theories of discourse analysis, this article reviews the nature of apartheid policies in the occupied territories since 1948. The article attempts to answer the question that what was the articulation and Israeli Apartheid discourse formation process? The research hypothesis is that Apartheid discourse in the time of articulation, exploited from identity making and equivalence by relying on Judaism to use as an instrument for achieving its political benefits. The dialogue seeks to create a new meaning system through the bond of various identities in a common project. Based on this , social order is comprised of different scattered elements. These different and sparse elements consist of the external elements and forces are immigrants who settled in Palestine. In fact, Zionism, integrated floating identities and deserted Jewish elements to create identity and meaning system in the Occupied Territories through power mechanisms for legitimizing and abrading. This article is in two parts, the first part is due to the emergence of ethnic groups and geographic expansion and In the second part Israeli society by addressing a public space and assess the gaps and crises, stagnation, discourse hegemony and the emergence of competing discourses of Post Zionism is checked. Manuscript Document
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      122 - Navabet in Farabi and Ebne Baje’s Philosophy
      مرتضی  بحرانی
      Navabet (a metaphore of isolated humans) is among concepts that has applied in islamic philosophy. Both Farabi and Ebne baje has used this concept in their philosophy. In this paper, we want to answer this question that what reference, the expression of “navabet” has in Full Text
      Navabet (a metaphore of isolated humans) is among concepts that has applied in islamic philosophy. Both Farabi and Ebne baje has used this concept in their philosophy. In this paper, we want to answer this question that what reference, the expression of “navabet” has in Farabi’s Ebne baje ‘s views. This essay’s finding indicates that in both philosophers’ view, Navabet are isolated humans; but the reference of one view is philosopher and that of the other view is non-philosopher. The innovation of this essay is this point that in terms of modern philosophical and social view, the disscusion of Navabet diverts toward otherness in one orientation and in other orientation, this disscusion leads towards “identity”. The exploitation of this traditional thought aboat the politics, identity and distinction provides some horizons before us. Manuscript Document
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      123 - Theological Interpretation of Political Affair in Carl Schmite's View
      سمیه  حمیدی
      The european modern age has been considered as contemporary with renaissance so as the issue of seperation of religion and politics is one of its key concepts. This discontinuity predisposed the emergence of modernism view with the axis of human’s self-founded intellect Full Text
      The european modern age has been considered as contemporary with renaissance so as the issue of seperation of religion and politics is one of its key concepts. This discontinuity predisposed the emergence of modernism view with the axis of human’s self-founded intellect and the earthly politics project so that it lead to thought production based on the seperation of politics and religion. But in 20 th century, we observe the return of religion to politics field and political theorizing in this field. The beginning of theorizing in political theology can be observed in the views of German intellectual “Karl Schmit”. Through the new interpretation of christian theology, he rejected the thesis of the seperation of theology and politics. the problem of this paper is that what interpretation of political affair, schmit offers based on the theological propositions and what new understanding of religion and its relation with political affairs proposes? Schmit considers religion as the social life foundation and defines political affairs in relation with politics. In his view, the political concepts are the traditional form of theological concepts. Manuscript Document
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      124 - Theology and Politics in Political Thought of Frankfurt School
      Iraj Ranjbar  
      According to theoretical view of Habermas on “relation between ethics and politics” in history of western political thought, the ethics and politics in classic era and aristotelian tradition are ingrained around the concept of welfare, because the ethics defines the wel Full Text
      According to theoretical view of Habermas on “relation between ethics and politics” in history of western political thought, the ethics and politics in classic era and aristotelian tradition are ingrained around the concept of welfare, because the ethics defines the welfare and the politics serves as achieving welfare concept. Although, in the modern political thought and in Hobbsian tradition, the ethics and politics are seperated from each other, because the politics defines its goal, not as prospering and giving excellence to its citizens, but as controlling and managing the human instinct for the creation of “security” and achieving “prosperity”. With this description and according to the theoretical framework of Habermas, the present paper believes that in the views of Frankfurt school intellectuals, the ethics and politics merge around the ethical concept like the classic tradition, the only difference is that the joining of ethics and politics is not “prosperity" concept but it is the “salvation” concepts; the concept that is compatible with “excellence concept”. We should add this point that any of this school intellectuals considers the “salvation” achievement way in its special mechanism. Horkhimer, “the objective intellect”, Adorno, “aeshetics”, Markoze, “the intellectual reconstruction of society”And Hobermas, “the dialogue” is the way of achieving the salvation. Manuscript Document
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      125 - “Civil Disobedience” One Idea for Passing “Theoretical dead-end” of liberalism
      تورج  رحمانی علی  مختاری
      Civil disobedience has a long history in campaign method position. Political campaign of Mahatma Ghandi, Martin Luther King, and Nelson Mandella in 20 th century, are clear examples of civil disobedience. Of course this concept didn’t remain at the level of tactics and Full Text
      Civil disobedience has a long history in campaign method position. Political campaign of Mahatma Ghandi, Martin Luther King, and Nelson Mandella in 20 th century, are clear examples of civil disobedience. Of course this concept didn’t remain at the level of tactics and political campaign method, but it had been deliberated theoretically and philosophically by some inellectuals like Hana Arendt, Urgen Habermas, Ronald Dorkin, John Rawls and many others and entered practically to modern political philosophy domain. In this paper we try to comprehend this fact that why and how civil disobedience tactic was deliberated theoretically by philosophers and turned into a serious issue in political philosophy domain? The proposed view in this paper is that through Arendti argumentation of civil disobidience concept and by documentation of society intellectual convention formation of liberalism’s instruction aboat crises and tensions, we can show the importance of civil disobedience concept in modern political thought. The crisis of liberal tradition in theoretical domain and existing capacities of civil disobedience thought in intellecual tactics and criticism, created the bond of this concept with modern political thought domain. Manuscript Document
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      126 - Suffering, Action making in Marx's Political Thought
      زهرا  خشک جان محمدرضا  تاجیک
      This paper seeks to study Carl Marx’s view, as a sciologist and political philosopher concerning the objective conception of revolution occurrence requirement focusing on human suffering key concepts. In examining the requirements of revolutuion occurrence, Marx focused Full Text
      This paper seeks to study Carl Marx’s view, as a sciologist and political philosopher concerning the objective conception of revolution occurrence requirement focusing on human suffering key concepts. In examining the requirements of revolutuion occurrence, Marx focused on the suffering concept (that he defines in alineation form and objective and subjective requirements leading to its occurrence) and talks aboat the paradoxical aspect of suffering that is based on toghetherness of positive and negative aspects of proletariat social suffering. From his viewpoint, the precondition of Praxis achievment and revolutionary action, is dependent on objective and subjective existence of social suffering that can turn it from passive state to active issue of social affair along with revolutionary action infrastruture by means of proletariat awareness(objective and subjective) achievement and egression of alineation state. In this path, he as political philosopher and sociologist, is not unaware of religion’s role (that in his view it is the purposeful infrasructure of aristocrats for false informing and neutralizing the effect of existing social suffering). Therefore, Marx by acknowledging the affirmative aspect of suffering (in spite of social privative determinations), attends to it in proletariat (revolution) political action process as a vital, driving and even necessary force in the dialectic process of social and political evolution. Manuscript Document
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      127 - From Market Defeat to Government DefeatMarket-inclined and Government-inclined Controversy in Modern Age
      حجت  کاظمی
      From controversial view that has been flowing with regard to governmental interference and market freedom since three last centuries, two approaches can be identified: market-inclined and gvernment-inclined. This distinction is based on the weight that each approach ass Full Text
      From controversial view that has been flowing with regard to governmental interference and market freedom since three last centuries, two approaches can be identified: market-inclined and gvernment-inclined. This distinction is based on the weight that each approach assigns to one of these two institutions and its capacities for achievement of optimal economical efficiency. Controversy on this issue has a deep idealogic nature more than anything else and each approach tries to form historical evidence in their favors. In this paper, in addition to proposing the historical process of two approaches’ controversy and their internal varieties, we prove that in the shadow of achievements and failures of two approaches on one hand and proposing the alternative theoretical patterns and formation of developmental successful experience outside of conventional experiences that documented by two controversy parties on other hand, the grounds of the new pattern proposition of governmental interfernce extent have been provided since 1990 decade until now. The institution-inclined approach focusing on the topic of “quality” of interference instead of “quantity” of governmental interference is looking beyond the mentioned ideologic controversy and theorizing aboat the method and quality of positive governmental interaction with market institutions. Manuscript Document
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      128 - Plato's Utopia in the Paradigmatic Narrative (Based on the Republic’s Dialogue)
      حجت زمانی راد محمد کمالی گوکی Abolfazl Shakoori
      Ontology, epistemology and anthropology are considered as the basis for any theory in the humanities, as there is no theory, explicit or implicit, that is not based on these basic metaphysical principles. Also, the political thought as a normative concept, always arises Full Text
      Ontology, epistemology and anthropology are considered as the basis for any theory in the humanities, as there is no theory, explicit or implicit, that is not based on these basic metaphysical principles. Also, the political thought as a normative concept, always arises in relation to the context and the time and its contemporary crisis, reflecting these crises and based on the fundamental philosophical foundations, determine its favorable conditions that derived from normative criteria and articulates, its specific formations from patterns of authority. Comparing ideas in political thought with each other that can be based on their metaphysical principles and norms, is considered to be a category of political thought. According to such a process of political theory, political thought is a paradigmatic narrative. This article seeks to provide a the Paradigmatic Narrative from political thought of Plato, based on the Republic's dialogue. And by demonstrating the metaphysical fundamentals of his contemporary crisis, analysis the positive and negative ratio of plato's utopia with those crisis and fundamentals. The moral crisis and the decline of Athens in the Peloponnesian War and the emergence of sophists, remains the central crisis of Plato. The idea world is located in the center of Plato's epistemology and ontology. The Platonic utopia is based on the philosopher-king rule, that was following the presidential paradigm, only will be understood through Plato’s contemporary crisis and his methaphysical foundations. Manuscript Document
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      129 - The Relation between Truth and Politics: A Neo-Pragmatist Reading
        Mohammad Karim Mohammadi
      The idea of pragmatic truth in Richard Rorty's thought is an alternative method to search the truth, not in a way that the western philosophical tradition has dealt with heretofore. In examining the notion of truth, Rorty's pragmatic approach contrast with the two narra Full Text
      The idea of pragmatic truth in Richard Rorty's thought is an alternative method to search the truth, not in a way that the western philosophical tradition has dealt with heretofore. In examining the notion of truth, Rorty's pragmatic approach contrast with the two narratives raised in western philosophical thought: on the one hand, with Platonic-Cartesian tradition, in which reality is interpreted as a metaphysical matter; and on the other hand, with post-modernist narrative who believes in the deconstruction of truth and claims of relativity of truth. To find an answer to the question: What are the proportions and consequences of established relation between truth and politics in Rorty’s political thought?, the authors formulate the hypothesis that "the connection established between truth and politics in Rorty's thought, leads to innovate a politics relying on social hope, based on the thesis of priority of democracy over philosophy". Accordingly, efforts have been made, by analyzing the pattern of pragmatic truth which posed by Rorty, to show that this pattern is a continuation of the same concept of truth in William James and John Dewey's pragmatic tradition in the form of linguistic turn. Also it is characterized by an emphasis on solidarity, versus of what Rorty calls “will of objectivity”. While this version is not without any claim of objectivity, and avoid falling into the trap of relativism, considers a concept that in a practical manner, is useful to meet pragmatically the objectives and solve the political problems. Manuscript Document
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      130 - Efficiency as the capacity of state: Political Approach to Efficiency
      محمد  کمالی‌زاده  
      In this article we seek to attribute that to evaluate the effectiveness of government and political system, With reference to structural-functional systems theory to the theoretical framework. The main question in this article, is seeking for reliable indicators for the Full Text
      In this article we seek to attribute that to evaluate the effectiveness of government and political system, With reference to structural-functional systems theory to the theoretical framework. The main question in this article, is seeking for reliable indicators for the effectiveness of government from the perspective of political science. To answer this question, efficient capacities in the form of six capacities there for any government, will be discussed. Six potential monopoly of the legitimate use of force, extraction, shaping national identity, regulatory identity, maintaining internal and redistributive cohesion, in this article has been studied as indexes of government effectiveness. In this paper, our perception of efficiency can be considered as duties or common authorities in addition to great symmetry with economic understanding and management of this concept, linked with the key concept of "power" in political science. In this concept of efficiency, has been considered to the actual position of governments in countries and communities today, with an emphasis on the duties, powers and abilities as well as their expectations. This notion of efficiency, the closest and most functional conception of the concept of efficiency in political science which can be a reliable basis and theoretical framework for research on the effectiveness of the government. Manuscript Document
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      131 - A model for measuring the relationship between religiosity and political culture
        Alireza  Mohseni Tabrizi
      Given the conflicting results of different research findings on the relationship between religiosity and political culture in the past few decades, this article attempts to show what variable affects on type of relationship between religiosity and political culture. The Full Text
      Given the conflicting results of different research findings on the relationship between religiosity and political culture in the past few decades, this article attempts to show what variable affects on type of relationship between religiosity and political culture. The type of research method is documentary and based on the theoretical and empirical foundations review of the religiosity and political culture. The research findings indicate type of reading and understanding of religion and political culture is influential in determining the type of relationship between religiosity and political culture. More precisely, As the type of religiosity of people according to the type of reading (understanding) of religion can be strict, moderate and too tolerant, The political culture of people can also be categorized according to the same criteria as strict, moderate, and too tolerant and the type of reading from religion (and hence religiosity) and the political culture that leads to different types of religiosity and political culture affects the type of correlation of them, so that consistent and corresponding readings of religion and political culture conducive to a positive relationship between them, mutually, inconsistent readings conducive to negative relationship. This article has attempted to offer the relationship between religiosity and political culture variables in the form of a theoretical - explanative model. Manuscript Document
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      132 - Transition from Agency of Actors to Citizenship Preparation for Inadequacy of Philanthropist Principles of Capability Approach
      عباس  منوچهری saeed nariman
      Although Amartya Sens capability approach initially emerged in academic area as a critique to normative and ethical economic foundations, especially welfare economics in 1980s, it has been employed extensively in the context of human development. One of the main concern Full Text
      Although Amartya Sens capability approach initially emerged in academic area as a critique to normative and ethical economic foundations, especially welfare economics in 1980s, it has been employed extensively in the context of human development. One of the main concerns of this approach was the marginalization of human being from the axis of development and well-being and its main critique to others was to consider human as a passive being. Some critics have suggested that, although this approach attempted to introduce a new concept of human beings in economic area, it could not go beyond the current economical human of economics and it just provided more humane conception of development than development for human beings. The majority of criticisms of anthropological basis of Sens approach include three critiques of misinterpretation of human notion, being pre-socio political and methodological individualism. In this paper it's attempted to response to these three critiques based on the definition of agency which Sen has expanded in his approach and then design a theoretical-philosophical agency for misinterpretation anthropological foundation of capability approach by transition from agency (of actors) to citizenship. Manuscript Document
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      133 - Investigating on the Continuity of Structures of Iranshahri's politics In Iranian and Islamic Epistles (Case Study: The Era of Ardeshir and Khajeh Nizam-Al-Mulk eTusi)
      mohadese jazaee roh allah eslami
      The “Mirror of Prince’s genre” is one of the long-standing Iranian traditions, and unquestionably one that extended into the Islamic era. In this article, we examine the continuation of the structures of the Iranshahri concept, with the method of intertextuality, within Full Text
      The “Mirror of Prince’s genre” is one of the long-standing Iranian traditions, and unquestionably one that extended into the Islamic era. In this article, we examine the continuation of the structures of the Iranshahri concept, with the method of intertextuality, within the ancient Iranian text of “The Era of Ardeshir’’ and ‘‘Siyar-al-muluk’’ of Nizam al-Mulk. Intertextuality claims that no text is separate from the past and no text can be viewed as a closed and self-contained system. In other words, each text gains meaning by concepts of the past and influences the understanding of the reader. According to this fact, all fundamental meanings and their logic is dependent on what has already been said. The texts reflect the political realities of society in their own way as reflected in dialogues or monologues. After explaining the theory of intertextuality, the authors show how structures such as the quality of governance and the emphasis on the Farah of Shah, the coherence of religion and politics, the importance of the ministry's institution, and the establishment of spies, and structures such as the methaphysical politics, despotism and patriarchal government stress on the relation of intertextuality between these two texts and make justifiable the possibility of countinuing The Mirror of Princes. Manuscript Document
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      134 - Sovereignty meaning in Hobbes thought according to Hobbes's Interpretation of the Scripture
      Hassan Ghasemi Aboulfazl  Shakouri
      Sovereignty issue has been the topic of long debates where the follow-up of interpretations of this concept in scripture has led to a variety of votes. Thomas Hobbes, the sovereignty theorist, has had a pivotal role in clarifying the relationship between Sovereignty and Full Text
      Sovereignty issue has been the topic of long debates where the follow-up of interpretations of this concept in scripture has led to a variety of votes. Thomas Hobbes, the sovereignty theorist, has had a pivotal role in clarifying the relationship between Sovereignty and religion in the early era of modernism by interpreting Scripture based on his scientific method. This article highlights the transformation in the concept of natural rights as a bridge between sovereignty and religion in Hobbes's theory. In addition, this study corresponds to this concept with Hobbes's interpretation of Scripture and, thereby, it is claimed that Hobbes has embedded the main component of his theory, which is social contract, in reading the Scripture. Then, Hobbes interprets it in favor of a powerful ruling authority who is seeking for individuals' peace and security and also the maintaining the individuals' natural rights at large. Manuscript Document
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      135 - The Archetypes and Political Myths of Modern age: Based on the theoretical framework of “Carl Gustave Young”
      mohamad ali tavana farzad azarkamand
      “Carl Gustave young” is one of the most prominent contemporary intellectuals who studied the subject of Archetypes and their reproduction in modern political myths framework. From young’s view, the Archetypes are included as categories that are inherited from forefather Full Text
      “Carl Gustave young” is one of the most prominent contemporary intellectuals who studied the subject of Archetypes and their reproduction in modern political myths framework. From young’s view, the Archetypes are included as categories that are inherited from forefathers and lineages and consists some parts of our unconscious. The Archetypes showed off in the frame of myths and fables ; but- in contrary to enlightenment prediction-not only they did not eradicate , but also they expose the modern political life to much changes. One of its prominent changes is the formation of modern political ideologies and mass movements. Simply said, the Archetypes continue to live in another form in modern age. Based on this fact, this essay tries to study the relationships between modern political myths and Archetypes, Based on the theoretical framework of “Carl Gustave Young”. The main question of this essay is: How do the Archetypes reproduce in modern human’s soul? The hypothesis of this essay is that these Archetypes have sediment in unconscious of human and the modern charismatic leaders have activated them again through rearticulating of Archetypes. The approach of this essay is ideology (Knowing thought). It means that it reconstructs the formation process of Archetypes in modern age. The method of the essay is also qualitative content analysis. It means that it deals with analyzing (derivation, argumentation for or against) the ideas and concepts related with Archetypes. We can consider the most important finding of the present research as following: in the recent modernity age, the Archetypes exist in human’ unconscious and the psychological and social crises (like confusion among tradition and modernism) can provide this opportunity for authoritarian charismatic leaders to activate them again. Simply said, in the current age, the context of totalitarian ideologies formation-based on Archetypes -is provided Manuscript Document
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      136 - The multi-layer model of analysis of 11th presidential elections
      saeed nariman  
      the presidential elections in Iran have always surprised the political analysts and experts. Through the analytical investigations of 11th presidential elections of Iran , both at the level of Iranian and also foreign analysts, it has become clear that the most of this Full Text
      the presidential elections in Iran have always surprised the political analysts and experts. Through the analytical investigations of 11th presidential elections of Iran , both at the level of Iranian and also foreign analysts, it has become clear that the most of this surprise is due to the one-factor and one- dimensional analyses and there is no model that can investigate all effective layers and dimensions in the elections’ results. So this essay is determined to study the 11th elections by means of 3-layer model that its most internal layer is discursive level of elections, its medial layer is based on the relative deprivation theory that tries to illustrate the social and economic circumstances of society and its outset layer, studies the description of the field level of elections and presents the personal, political and social factors that are effective in the elections results Manuscript Document
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      137 - The explanation of procedures of 11th presidential elections By using of relative deprivation theory
         
      In order to clarify the procedure of 11th presidential elections, the various reasons have been referred to and the quality of hassan rouhani’s politics and his supporting team in election competitions days to election waves created by political groups in his support ha Full Text
      In order to clarify the procedure of 11th presidential elections, the various reasons have been referred to and the quality of hassan rouhani’s politics and his supporting team in election competitions days to election waves created by political groups in his support have been emphasized to. In this paper it is attempted to study the reflection of psychological origins and relative deprivation feeling created in Iranian' society in formation of supporting wave of Rouhani. Generally, in individualistic and psychological prospect, the circumstances of changing the existing situation can be looked for in individual imaginations and feelings that in themselves are affected by social changes. In this paper, based on theoretical pattern of “Ted Robert Gar” and considering this presumption that the social dissatisfaction and trying to change the existing situation, is due to the amount and degree of relative deprivation feeling among various groups of every society, the grounds of relative deprivation creation in society including the understanding of inequality in 8-year period of 9th and 10th governments have been studied. Finally, it can concluded that how the various factors like development of universities and their dissatisfaction of government’ performance, the formation of class gap due to the conspicuous difference of per capita income and increasing inflation and expenses and unemployment , have reflected themselves in society’s relative deprivation, frustration and finally a general attempt for changing the existing situation and voting for the most prominent election candidates who is precursor of changing the situation Manuscript Document
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      138 - Reviewing the theory of clash of civilizations Based on Middle East evolutions in last two decades
         
      After ending the cold war, the identity boundaries of nations that are specified based on the dependence on one of the political and ideological poles or independence on them , have been changed and the role and importance of culture in identity finding process of natio Full Text
      After ending the cold war, the identity boundaries of nations that are specified based on the dependence on one of the political and ideological poles or independence on them , have been changed and the role and importance of culture in identity finding process of nations have turned out to be more prominent . While the identity boundaries in the past were specified in terms of political, ideological and economic indexes, gradually the identity boundaries were formed based on cultural indexes and civilizational and cultural identity were determined as a distinguishing basis of political units. This paper seeks to specify the argument of contrast inside and outside of civilization in recent years based on the theory of clash of civilizations. The result of this paper confirms this assumption that in new circumstances, the one-sided process of globalization, equally has removed the cultural boundaries of societies and proceed in the direction of westernizing them, has caused social groups redefine its identity based on its separation from west and western culture and civilization and increase the rate of west fighting and retreating in cultural and civilizational identity finding process Manuscript Document
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      139 - Using the Fuzzy cognitive maps in the field of regional studies
        احمد دوست محمدي  
      Few decades have passed since the birth of regional studies as sub-field of political science and international relations, but the dominance of international relations approaches on scientific literature and research method of this scientific field in inevitable. The ev Full Text
      Few decades have passed since the birth of regional studies as sub-field of political science and international relations, but the dominance of international relations approaches on scientific literature and research method of this scientific field in inevitable. The evolution procedure of regional studies field showed that doing research in this field may require research in history, political science, sociology, economics, geopolitics and many of other scientific tendencies that can be referred based on the case. This subject shows the difficulty of research in regional studies field. This paper is determined to introduce the Fuzzy cognitive maps as a method with capability of application in regional studies field, so this method can meet the researcher’s needs in the field of study of subjects without any background before, or entitled as a vague phenomenon. The advantage of this method firstly is the ability of recognizing the elements of vague phenomenon and helping to understanding the relations among them and secondly the derivation of the agreed point from various views about that phenomenon Manuscript Document
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      140 - A Criticism on class status in “ o’lrisch beck” ‘s flexible modernity
        reza mahmoudoghli  
      In this paper, the conception of class was criticized and studied in “o’lrisch beck”‘s view. The theoretical framework of research is based on the critical approach that aims to challenge the self-founded culture and intellect of modernity. O’lrisch beck as one of the f Full Text
      In this paper, the conception of class was criticized and studied in “o’lrisch beck”‘s view. The theoretical framework of research is based on the critical approach that aims to challenge the self-founded culture and intellect of modernity. O’lrisch beck as one of the flexible modernity theoreticians declares the death of class, the death of collective identities, and traditional construction in transition process to flexible modernity and emphasizes on individualism in modern age. In this paper, the authors criticize this framework due to ignorance of social inequalities in modern society and shows that beck’s theory about collective identities declination has very serious inconsistencies and contradictions. The main purpose of this essay is not, rejection of the reality of social changes, but the main goal is the clarification of existing internal mistakes and contradictions of Beck’s writings, along with the defense of class analysis in sociology discussions Manuscript Document
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      141 - The investigation of social capital concept in triple paradigms of development (modernization, dependence, global system)
      Saeed Attar
      this paper tries to answer this question that in which of the main development paradigms (modernization, dependence, global system), the concept of social capital and its constituents have been given attention? For answering this question, first of all, the comprehensiv Full Text
      this paper tries to answer this question that in which of the main development paradigms (modernization, dependence, global system), the concept of social capital and its constituents have been given attention? For answering this question, first of all, the comprehensive definition of social capital is presented. then considering this definition and through definition and analytic method, and via the data gathering instruments in existing librarian sources ,the writings of most prominent intellectuals of these paradigms are studied. The findings of the research shows that the social capital in recent tendencies of modernization paradigm, because of the attitude toward faculties and internal factors(introspection) and emphasizing social and cultural variables in the development procedure of countries, has been focused to some extent. The relative commitment of modernization paradigm toward social capital, can be considered as its forte (strong point) and make its endurance possible in golden age of social capital Manuscript Document
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      142 - Republicanism’s Status in Mohammad Ali Forogh’ political thought
      Rouzbeh Parham nia Iraj Ranjbar
      Investigating the relationship between monarchy and republicanism in Mohammad Ali Forouqi's political thought is the purpose of the present research. The opposition of monarchy and republicanism, as two politically distinct models for regulating power_based terms and re Full Text
      Investigating the relationship between monarchy and republicanism in Mohammad Ali Forouqi's political thought is the purpose of the present research. The opposition of monarchy and republicanism, as two politically distinct models for regulating power_based terms and relationships within human society has been one of the oldest intellectual conflicts in the domain of political thought. Possessing some realistic insights, Forouqi considers unsociability and irregularity as parts of primary nature of human beings; some violent nature contaminated by lethal instincts of self-conceit and selfishness, ambition of which seems to be endless unless it is overshadowed by some monarchical systems and governance by clever and pretentious kings. Monarchy was not considered as an ideal perfection by Forouqi, but his pessimistic view of humans, on one hand, and social circumstances and political chaos prevailing during his time, on the other hand, led him to perceive politically that the grounds for republicanism_based political order would be provided solely by destroying primary nature and essence of humans and replacing them with secondary nature under monarchical systems. With such a perception of monarchy_republicanism relationship within political thought in mind, present research examines mentioned dichotomous position in the realm of Forouqi’s political thought. By applying Sprigens’ theoretical framework, this research concludes that through observing and recognizing crisis and suffering prevailing on the society he was living in, Forouqi identified political order of monarchy as an interest_based requirement appropriate to Iranian society while his politically ideal norm was formed by his deep cognition of the logic governing modern terms and relations and emergence of a novel order based on the rule of law; A norm that, in his view, would result in mere political chaos and instability within a society lacking primary components of republicanism_based political order. Manuscript Document
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      143 - Qualitative content analysis of President XI speeches (Hassan Rouhani) at the United Nations in an inductive approach
      abbas zohuri einoddin saieed pourali
      In this research are discussed qualitative content analysis of speeches of the President (Hassan Rouhani) in the UN General Assembly in the years 1393.1392 and 1394 . The results of this analysis show that the West organized violence in our region, such as the Attack of Full Text
      In this research are discussed qualitative content analysis of speeches of the President (Hassan Rouhani) in the UN General Assembly in the years 1393.1392 and 1394 . The results of this analysis show that the West organized violence in our region, such as the Attack of Iraq and Afghanistan Caused violence, extremism and war in the Middle East And risk the destruction of civilization and create a terrorist state is very likely.The major powers must stop civilian and military intervention in in this region. Iran is a secure country and wants to play a constructive role in the region .Iranian people voted for the state with plan and hopes thus interactive approach of Iranian government caused to start negotiations over Iran's nuclear program with a new approach.The exact schedule and diplomatic flexibility and courage constructive dialogue of Iran led to a nuclear deal. As a result of the nuclear deal would be Cancellation of unjust sanctions, peace and stability in the region and the world and the beginning of a new chapter in Iran's relations with the world in all context. Iran intrend economic cooperation and development in the period after the agreement. Manuscript Document
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      144 - Conceptual Evolution of “Law” in the constitution process of Islamic Republic of Iran
      mohammad kamalizade  
      The constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran as an influential concept and phenomenon, needs to be investigated historically to make clear the formation process of its constituent concepts and elements. The concepts and elements have been formed before revolution and as Full Text
      The constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran as an influential concept and phenomenon, needs to be investigated historically to make clear the formation process of its constituent concepts and elements. The concepts and elements have been formed before revolution and as a result of revolution on one hand, and the intellectual attempts of compilers regarding conventionalizing issue. The great characters of revolution not only did not have any perception and special thought of law in their minds, but also they did not think well about the process of law formulation. So while formulating the constitution, they are faced with various difficulties for formulating the key clauses such as sovereignty problems and peolple’s rights and principal freedoms. So for understanding the philosophy and the process of constitution phenomenon in Islamic Republic of Iran, the historical concepts and its formation process and also conventionalizing process of laws should be considered. This goal is achieved considering the mentalities and intentions of formulators of Islamic Republic of Iran’s law while responding the era’s problems. Manuscript Document
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      145 - The Effect of Social Capital on Access to Political Position
      Qumars Ashtarian Tahereh Mehrvarzian
      In different societies, there have always been serious conflicts in getting power as the most important and influential element in social-political life, and individuals compete in a variety of ways to get power. The social capital of actors can be very effective in det Full Text
      In different societies, there have always been serious conflicts in getting power as the most important and influential element in social-political life, and individuals compete in a variety of ways to get power. The social capital of actors can be very effective in determining the ultimate result of the competition, and the more the volunteers and actors use network communications in competition and, as a result, have the support of collective networks, the more they would be supported by the groups and networks that have influence and power, so they can likely achieve the more political position. The main issue of the article is how the social capital of the network affects the achievement of political status and the method of analysis is descriptive and analytical here. Manuscript Document
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      146 - The role of power, co- imagination and extremism in creating human identity
      Fatemeh Shahrezaei Keikavoos Yakideh
      This article has been based on this hypothesis that extremism as one of the ways in which power is exercised, is a reaction of individual or individuals who are obedient of power for regaining identity for responding the question" What is the role of power and extremi Full Text
      This article has been based on this hypothesis that extremism as one of the ways in which power is exercised, is a reaction of individual or individuals who are obedient of power for regaining identity for responding the question" What is the role of power and extremism in the creation of human identity". In this qualititative research by interpretative methods, human personality and identity in view of philosophy, politics, psychology and sociology scholars have been studied according to Martin Heidegger’s definition of "Man-Dasein"’s view and have been recognized and denominated two different synchronous types of "Identity" for every individual entitled: "Existent Identity" (in the sense of what a person identified and defined by it) and "Conceivable Identity" (in the sense of identity depicted in the mind of Person, and other imaginable identities for each person), which have relation and influence on each other. By reviewing "Dasein", who recognizes himself on his own base, the necessity of adapting existent and conceivable identity in his life is appeared, and by focusing on the role of power and the ways in which power is exercised in the light of adapting two types of identities as a goal, a process of exercising power is realized and named as "co- imagination" (in the meaning of the process of interference, change and determination of wishes, goals and desires of others in various ways -intentionally and unintentionally-, and considering others only as tools for providing conditions for gaining own demands, goals, aspirations or of own institution, group, community and . . . ). The subjection of this Co-imagination, who wishes to reclaim this "conceivable identity", while attempting extreme reactions, tending to subjugate the others, have been followed in different scope of "Dasein" to mark the invasive surroundings to Dasein Identity in order to make calculable and predictable version of Dasein, and to find the consequences and to provide the consequences and solution seeking means of extremism which may provide guidelines for afterthoughts. Manuscript Document
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      147 - Neo- Asabiyyah; conceptual development of Ibn-Khaldun's notion of Asabiyyah regarding the formation process of ISIS
      Ahmad Mehraban Dafsari Mansour Mirahmadi
      Internal cohesion among Salafi-Jihadi networks is somehow similar to kinship ties in tribal societies. This is not very reproduction of the kinship ties though it reminds some aspects of Ibn-Khaldun’s notion of “Asabiyah”. Thus in spite of much similarities we can not a Full Text
      Internal cohesion among Salafi-Jihadi networks is somehow similar to kinship ties in tribal societies. This is not very reproduction of the kinship ties though it reminds some aspects of Ibn-Khaldun’s notion of “Asabiyah”. Thus in spite of much similarities we can not apply this concept for the analysis of Daesh terrorist group and its related networks enjoying ethnic and linguistic variety. Moreover, some other characteristics of these groups i. e. having affiliated networks and using the social media are specific to the modern societies and therefore the classical notion of “asabiyah” does not appropriately explain their aspects. Analyzing Khaldunian asabiyyah’s elements i. e. kinship ties, religion, and authority, the study of their dynamics and developments through the formation process of ISIS and its internal cohesion, this research delivers an assessment on the possibilities for postulating a new Khaldunian analysis. . Manuscript Document
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      148 - Colonial Streaks in Kant's Philosophy of Judgment (Based on Spivak`s Ideas)
      sediqe pourmokhtar Shamsolmolouk Mostafavi  
      The success of British colonial rule during the nineteenth century was not only dependent on the threat of military force, but also on the sophisticated use of rhetoric so the civilizing mission of Europeans established based on culture as rhetoric and followd 18th and Full Text
      The success of British colonial rule during the nineteenth century was not only dependent on the threat of military force, but also on the sophisticated use of rhetoric so the civilizing mission of Europeans established based on culture as rhetoric and followd 18th and 19th century literature and philosophy. This superiority was followed by 18th and 19th century`s philosophy and literature. Emanuel Kant, the great philosopher of 18th century, in his book “Critique of Judgment” that its first part is the Critique of Aesthetic Judgment and its second part deals with the Critique of Teleological Judgment. Kant in this book introduced a subject, that achieves beauty and sublimity and finality under special conditions; however since in Kant’s view, such understanding is not specific to all people, this question arises for critics that whether there is a sign of racism and colonianism in third criticism of Kant Subject. So, the main question of this article is that is there any colonial and racism streaks in third critique of Kant. This article based on the ideas of the post-colonial critic and theorist, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, is a well-known scholar in diverse fields of post-colonial research, examines and answers this question. Spivak believes that Kant’s theories in two cases, use racism and colonialism; first in analysis of sublimity he states that raw man can understand sublimity as a terrible conceptions because he is not educated and cultured; secondly, in finality discussion, considers Australian indigenous inhabitants without humane nominality. Therfore, the indicating subject of universality or Kant Human does not refer to all humans, but only pays attention to burgeous educated man subject of European Enlightenment period as providing a part of rational principles of Imperialism development. Manuscript Document
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      149 - Dariush Shayegan rereading in light of the subject of playful
        abolfazl shakoori
      Iranians' intellectual encounter with modernity has wildly fluctuated so far. Iranian thinkers, like Western thinkers, have concentrated their intellectual efforts on providing a solution to the problem of the relationship between subjectivity and generality. The presen Full Text
      Iranians' intellectual encounter with modernity has wildly fluctuated so far. Iranian thinkers, like Western thinkers, have concentrated their intellectual efforts on providing a solution to the problem of the relationship between subjectivity and generality. The present study investigates Dariush Shayegan's solutions to this issue. To do so, we have first addressed the anthropological species presented and exhibited in his works. The rest of the research reviews Shayegan's works based on the concept of the playful subject and is dedicated to clarifying his solution to the problem of the relationship between subjectivity and generality. The playful subject is a subject that acknowledges its own dichotomy and connects them consciously and playfully. Although Shayegan does not grant full autonomy to subjectivity, and does not dissolve it in generality. . Manuscript Document
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      150 - Revolution in proxy wars in post cold war era and its modules for international relations field
         
      Proxy wars, as wars in which fighting missions are delegated to actors who represent other actors or act in their interests, are common in international relations among the common phenomena of international relations that international relations scholars consider its di Full Text
      Proxy wars, as wars in which fighting missions are delegated to actors who represent other actors or act in their interests, are common in international relations among the common phenomena of international relations that international relations scholars consider its different respects and its great differences with conventional wars attracts the attention of international relations field specially. The implications of these wars for IR as a discipline have not been investigated systematically. The bottomline of this paper is that this type of war and its changes after post cold war era lead to the theoretical and conceptual changes in international relations field. Morover, the differences between two eras show how neo-proxy war challenges most presuppositions of main current of international relations including the effects of plurarity of actors involving in war, fading the boundary between onshore and offshore, and interwoven analytic levels. Furthermore, the variety of attitudes in clarification of proxy war shows that how this phenomenon provides the new ground for more theoretical richness for main theories of international affairs at least potentially. . Manuscript Document
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      151 - Analysis of The Conceptual Shift of The Political Philosophy Based on The Two Components of Power and Truth at The Thought of Strauss, Arendt and Foucault
      mohammad bagher khorramshad mohammad ismael nozari
      Until now, different interpretations have been presented concerning the nature of the Political philosophy in different paradigms and there is no similar assumptions toward the nature of the political philosophy among the thinkers. The present paper also seeks to answer Full Text
      Until now, different interpretations have been presented concerning the nature of the Political philosophy in different paradigms and there is no similar assumptions toward the nature of the political philosophy among the thinkers. The present paper also seeks to answer this question that how we can explain the existence of the different imaginations and interpretations concerning the essence and nature of the political philosophy? Hypothesis of this paper is as follows: Conceptual shifting and changing of the two fundamental concepts namely truth and power in different paradigmatic patterns framework and different relation which is defined and established between these two concepts under different paradigms among two above-mentioned concepts, have been resulted in formation of the various interpretations concerning the essence of the political philosophy and its conceptual shift. Present enquiry, have been attempted to analyze the nature of the political philosophy, concretely, in the light of the two fundamental concepts namely the truth and the power of the Strauss, Arendt And Foucault thought by adopting comparative analysis and by adopting textual approach. For this purpose, we have shown that the existence of the transcendental truth has been presupposed at the strauss’s thought. Here, power is perceived as the object of the Political philosophy and Political philosophy as intellectual knowledge is appeared as truth discourse. But arendt draw the truth from transcendental field into the public sphere and communication and intersubjectivity area. Therefore, power link up with deliberative and conversational politics and the Political philosophy is drawn from merely mental activity into the practical action area. But in foucault’s thought, power is considered as capillary phenomenon concealed behind every knowledge and the Political philosophy acts as instrument which is used to justify the power relations that is focused on constructing truth regime. Manuscript Document
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      152 - Siyasat-nama and Discursive Turn in Iranian Political Thought; the Speech Act Analysis of Siyar al-mulûk
      hamdollah akvani
      The relation between author and social context in discourse turn of Iranian and Islamic political thought is a matter of great concern. The social contexts of 7th to 9th centuries created new condition which in turn paved the ground for change and development of Irania Full Text
      The relation between author and social context in discourse turn of Iranian and Islamic political thought is a matter of great concern. The social contexts of 7th to 9th centuries created new condition which in turn paved the ground for change and development of Iranian and Islamic political philosophy and its discursive turn. In response to this change and political contexts of Iranian-Islamic society, emerged three schools of thought among the thinkers of this period. Al-Mawardi and introducing of caliphate system, Al-Ghazali with Islamic justification of authority of the Kings in order to reconcile between caliphate and kingship and, finally, Nizam al-Mulk by Siyasatnama (The Book of Government) who tried to pass the caliphate system and articulate a new discourse. Relying on the Iranian tradition of Ideal King, Nizam al-Mulk tries to justify kingship with an expedient approach. Such a conflict is distinguishable in Siyasatnama. Within this book, there is a conflict between three discourses: caliphate, kingship and religious discourse of resistance. This paper is going to verify the hypothesis that Nizam al-Mulk has played the role of “poiltical subjective” in the discursive transformation from writing Shariatnama (Islamic laws) to Andarzname (Book of advice). He uses three lingual strategies in order to play subjective situation role: to omit caliphate discourse by “concealing” it, and highlight the kingship discourse by excluding other discourses of resistance that are traceable in the book. The methodology of the article is a combination of Laclau and Mouffe discourse theory and micro-level approach of Van leeuwen discourse Analysis. Manuscript Document
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      153 - Second Generation of Intellectualism, Absolute State and the Problematic of Modernity
       
      The intellectual orientation of various generations of Iranian intellectalism has been shaped from the context of involvement and thinking in the issue of decadence and Underdevelopment, the way of exit from it, and finally the relation of traditional legacy and the wes Full Text
      The intellectual orientation of various generations of Iranian intellectalism has been shaped from the context of involvement and thinking in the issue of decadence and Underdevelopment, the way of exit from it, and finally the relation of traditional legacy and the western modernism in the process of development. This article attempts to analyze the position and coordinates of such a discussion for second generation of intellectualism, i.e. a group of Iranian intelluctuals that had intellectual-political activity orienting toward the establishment of Pahlavi State. The first part of article analyzes the transition process of constitutional State to the theory of new authoritarian and absolute State and the combination of people, groups and publications that realized such evolution. The second part of article provides an image of controversies and views being common between this generation and about the issue of modernity and the way of confronting it. In this part of article, the views are classified under two approaches of “modernity with minimum Iranian manipulation” and “selection-based modernity and adaptation with native conditions” and views of figures and supporting groups have been explained. The last part of article answers to the origins of the lack of deepening the issues related to the issue of decadence and modernity in this generation and more focus on the more objective dimensions of renovation and the way of its realization. Manuscript Document
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      154 - The Avoidance of Thinking in A Religious Culture: A Review and Critique of Aramesh Doostdar’s Points of View
      Seyed Mohammad Ali Taghavi Fatemeh Baee
      Aramesh Doostdar considers “lack of question” as the main difficulty of Iranian society, which has been dominated by a religious culture since the ancient time. In this paper, his views are assessed on the basis of postmodern observations. Richard Rorty speaks of two ac Full Text
      Aramesh Doostdar considers “lack of question” as the main difficulty of Iranian society, which has been dominated by a religious culture since the ancient time. In this paper, his views are assessed on the basis of postmodern observations. Richard Rorty speaks of two accounts of rationality: a broad account which he favours and a narrow one which he crticises and attributes to modern thinkers. The main question in this paper is that in which category Doostdar’s views can be classified? It seems that he advocates the narrow modernist account of rationality that considers whatever does not comply with it as outside reason. Doostdar’s metanarrative on Iranian culture is based on unjustified extrapolations that ignore the complexity of the culture. Since he believes that Islamic and Iranian culture lacks fundamental philosophical questions, he disregards all other types of questions raised in that culture. In politics, Doostdar argues that the relationship between religion and the state in Iran, since the Achaemenid Empire, constituted the religious culture in the society in such a way that any escape from it and transition towards a developed society would be impossible. Manuscript Document
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      155 - Evolution Course of “Pleasure” in Classical Political Thought
       
      Appreciating human as naturally sociable in the classical political thought, many of human categories considered as in private domain in modern age, have been included in political philosophy discourse category and occupied a prominent position in this domain. Among oth Full Text
      Appreciating human as naturally sociable in the classical political thought, many of human categories considered as in private domain in modern age, have been included in political philosophy discourse category and occupied a prominent position in this domain. Among others, “pleasure” is an important normative matter which Greek philosophers, such as Plato and Aristotle and their precedents, have theorized in their political-theological schema and framework of philosophy. However, while Plato in his Philebus, and Aristotle deal with in his Nichomachean Ethics, in two parts, in Hellenistic Roman Empire, ”pleasure gradually has been subsided from its political status, leading towads the private ethics. Epicure is among the persons who considers the pleasure focally, but not like Aristotle as a social activity, but as a category related to self-purification and in fact as an introduction for reduction of outcast pleasure from political perspective toward very divine subject through Christianity emergence and instead of imagining a position in designing the prosperous society, it turns into an subject in the framework of god-human relationships and as a result it is no more the issue of normative political and social understanding but it is considered as the category concerning obedience of divine subject. This issue is stabilized through Augustine’s convention and pleasure in its evolution course evolves as political subject to religious suject that in following provides the possibility of modern pleasurism (hendoism) free from social ethics priciples. In order to understand the changing process of the position of “pleasure” category from the political matter in Greek ethics philosophy to the individual subject in modern political philosophy, this paper investigates the evolution process of “pleasure” from the normal subject to the mere religious category in classic era. Manuscript Document
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      156 - Ali Shariati, the Islamic Renaissance and Freedom from degeneration
      amir roshan محسن  شفیعی سیف آبادی
      Since the Iranian confrontation with the West and realizing their decline, “Who we are” were of Iranian intellectuals’ main concerns. After this, the questions such as "who we are? And “how we should be” were raised. To answer these questions, Shariati as an Iranian int Full Text
      Since the Iranian confrontation with the West and realizing their decline, “Who we are” were of Iranian intellectuals’ main concerns. After this, the questions such as "who we are? And “how we should be” were raised. To answer these questions, Shariati as an Iranian intellectuals with Islamic obsessions, tried to formulate solution for emancipation of decline and going toward progress. According to him, capitalism, imperialism and religious diversion and subjectivism, were considered as the main causes of decline of Iran and the Muslim world and only via returning to the self and the formation of Renaissance and an especially Islamic renaissance that the advancement and perfection can be achieved. Therefore, the main aim in this paper is the analysis of the concept of Islamic Renaissance and the emancipation of the decline in votes of Ali Shariati’s views. Manuscript Document
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      157 - Anarchism ideological orientation towards the State and its realization in the age of globalization: (According to rereading of George Woodcock and Saul Newman Theory of Anarchism)
      mohamad ali tavana Mahmoud Alipour Roghayeh  Azizpour Merzoni
      The State has been discussed as highest as the executive branch within the territorial boundaries. The State-at least in modern age- is manifestation of the relationship of power and domination that existed in all communities. Anarchism as an ideology, is pessimist towa Full Text
      The State has been discussed as highest as the executive branch within the territorial boundaries. The State-at least in modern age- is manifestation of the relationship of power and domination that existed in all communities. Anarchism as an ideology, is pessimist toward the institution of “government” and “governmental power”, and considers every kind of institution as a destructive factor of moral and social life of humans. On the other hands, in the age of globalization, as the recent political social situation, the elements of dominance are faced with major challenges. One characteristic of the idea of globalization is reliance on the intellectual context of postmodernism movement that challenges the values of the modern era. The main feature of this movement is the rejection of absolutism, that In this regard, does blames structure that is formed by the Power and State, and involves in the critique of domination in the political community. Based on this fact, this question is raised that considering the pluralism and the critique of the popularism, in “globalization” situation, is there a route for the assertiveness the “Anarchism” ideology. Our hypothesis would be that in the age of globalization, Due to the Expanding Decentralization approach in different domains, It can be said that State powers is scattered and their tasks is limited and on the other It can be said the Dream of a society without State, and moral society based on “Anarchism …” can be realize in some areas. Therefore it can be attempted to explain and analyze the fate of government in the globalization situation by rereading the ideology of Anarchism-in the viewpoints of two of most prominent of contem rorery intellectuals of this school; “George Woodcock” and “Saul Newman”. Manuscript Document
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      158 - The study of structural consistency analysis in relationship between literature and political culture
       
      Social scientists working in vast and various fields, focused on the analysis and explanation of social phenomena that reflect in their different forms in different areas of the lives of different communities. They try to offer different analytical formulations of socia Full Text
      Social scientists working in vast and various fields, focused on the analysis and explanation of social phenomena that reflect in their different forms in different areas of the lives of different communities. They try to offer different analytical formulations of social phenomena using scientific methods and explanation patterns and find different answers to explain the thoughts, behaviors and events in different social events in various fields. Explanation in the widest sense of the meaning is that the phenomena previously known as independent affairs are in relation to each other or the phenomena that have been viewed relevant develop a new relationship among themselves. The patterns mentioned above can either be causal, functional, structural and other different patterns that social scientists, depending on the attitude and theoretical points of view or favorite school or social context of their research in general, take advantage of them. In this article, through the study of one of these patterns and explanation and expansion of the structural patterns consistency and using them we try to provide different analytical formulations for the study of Political culture of communities. This pattern of cultural analysis, especially in historical studies of Political culture of communities, will be applied too much; where literature plays its role as one of the main channels and resources to shape popular culture. Manuscript Document
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      159 - Exceptionalism, Hegemonic Stability and Islamophobia in America
      احمد دوست محمدي Esfandiar  Mohammadi
      Since the year 1620, when a group of English people immigrated to America, exceptionalism based on the attitude of unique nation, racial superiority, the Israel of the time, the heaven on the earth and … have been seen in American society and, particularly, in the liter Full Text
      Since the year 1620, when a group of English people immigrated to America, exceptionalism based on the attitude of unique nation, racial superiority, the Israel of the time, the heaven on the earth and … have been seen in American society and, particularly, in the literature of American presidents, from George Washington to Barack Obama. Americans believe in the myth that their immigration from England has been the new type of “the Jews' immigration“ to the promised land” in order to build the God’s domain, so that they preserve the right to fight against any people who oppose the idea. So The first question that comes to mind is that what is the origin of idea of exceptionalism, and then how the idea became a basis for the theory of hegemonic stability, and then how this thought is supposed as the basis for formation of consistency theory based on dominance or hegemonic stability and what is its relation to the dissemination of Islamophobia in American society? Our purpose in this paper is showing where American exceptionalism is rooted in, and illustrating the effect that this thought has in formulating the hegemony theory based on offensiveness or dominance and raising and preaching of Islam phobia in American society. So this paper supposes that American Exceptionalism makes this country's state men act offensively and internationally that based on this, America has played its hegemonic role. And, because Islam as an anti hegemony religion, oppose such behavior, fighting Islam and Islamophobia has become America’s strategic agenda. Manuscript Document
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      160 - The role of civil society in public policy process: Providing a conceptual framework
      Yahya  Kamali
      Civil society, its organizations and elements is one of interested subjects of social and political analysts. Civil society, especially in democratic societies has a significant role in the public policy process. Political process is the main process is the public polic Full Text
      Civil society, its organizations and elements is one of interested subjects of social and political analysts. Civil society, especially in democratic societies has a significant role in the public policy process. Political process is the main process is the public policy process that includes power and influence in the society in which actors struggle to achieve certain goals. Public policy in its various stages is affected by new forces that the extent of their presence and the level of their power are growing. Understanding these effects can provide a Proper guide in defining and analyzing the public policy process in a country. In this Article, the public policy process has segregated into five stages: formation of referential, agenda setting, decision making, implementation and evaluation And then the role of civil society in the policy process have been analyzed. Manuscript Document
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      161 - Anxiety and Political Action (Case Study: The Boy Students of Law and Political Science Faculty, University of Tehran)
      Alia shraf  Nazari Hanif  Amoozadeh Mahdiraji
      The impact of human emotions not only effect on their daily life, but also influence on political behavior. Hence, high ranked of mass people or politicians make decisions based on their emotions. It is not reasonable to believe that people`s reaction based on their log Full Text
      The impact of human emotions not only effect on their daily life, but also influence on political behavior. Hence, high ranked of mass people or politicians make decisions based on their emotions. It is not reasonable to believe that people`s reaction based on their logical thinking. Some psychological factors such as anxiety (As an effective factor inside humans) could make people`s behaviors in their lifecycle. therefore, human`s political believes will also be affected by these motivators. In paper, this issue has recognized that anxiety has a dual effect on different levels of political behaviors. In one aspect, increase in anxiety will make direct effect on political behavior, and on the other hand, if anxiety breaks its red line, it will have decreasing effect on political behavior of society by motivating defensive mechanisms, and as a result society isolation and surveillance will appear. By using proper tools, defensive mechanisms could be controlled and political behavior of the society will turn back to its equilibrium point. Finally a dynamic system model has been described for this purpose. Manuscript Document
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      162 - Efficient bureaucracy in Institutional Approach
      محمد  کمالی‌زاده
      Bureaucracy, is a set of institutions that determine the quality of government performance in the context of the social goals. In this respect, the bureaucracy has taken a series of important institutions of a society. This system and its institutions in the form of for Full Text
      Bureaucracy, is a set of institutions that determine the quality of government performance in the context of the social goals. In this respect, the bureaucracy has taken a series of important institutions of a society. This system and its institutions in the form of formal and informal rules, to create opportunities and limitations that will determine the country's development process. Institutionalism as an analytical model has several advantages that can be effective in identifying the components of an efficient bureaucracy. Institutionalist approach, Firstly, provides clear criteria for evaluation and pathology Iranian bureaucracy. And secondly helps us to measure the performance of the bureaucracy and government institutions. In this paper, we discuss the main institutional frameworks of bureaucracy, and will show that this approach, which offers a set of indicators to measure and analyze the quality of its damage bureaucracy and how it affects other areas. Manuscript Document
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      163 - Comparative Study of Skinner and Tabatabaee Method in the Thought History
        سید رضا  شاكري
      Skinner and Tabatabaee, two thinkers who work in the history of thought in the West and Iran seek to identify its intellectual origins and evolution. However, both the author reviews the history of ideas, but due to differences in the search way are different. Skinner r Full Text
      Skinner and Tabatabaee, two thinkers who work in the history of thought in the West and Iran seek to identify its intellectual origins and evolution. However, both the author reviews the history of ideas, but due to differences in the search way are different. Skinner reviews on the idea with deep conviction to date and the total negation of the opinion that while Tabatabaee in any research activity, the dream of achieving modernity. Tabatabaee thinkers review the criteria for such measures modernity and tradition. A measure that eventually led him to the conclusion that a decline of thought in Iran. On the other hand Skinner prominent writers in the history of linguistic conventions and attempts to arrest them intentionality of the author and action with regard to the texts recognize that time. Manuscript Document
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      164 - The Transformation of communicative action, public sphere, civil society and democracy in Iran (The case study: Iran, between the constitutional movement and the presidential election 10th)
      مانا دشتگلی هاشمی هادی  خانیکی تهمينه شاوردي
      In this article, historical events and cases happening from the constitutional movement to the tenth presidential election of Iran, suggesting formation or non-formation of communicative action, public sphere, civil society and democracy, have been narrated and compared Full Text
      In this article, historical events and cases happening from the constitutional movement to the tenth presidential election of Iran, suggesting formation or non-formation of communicative action, public sphere, civil society and democracy, have been narrated and compared in a comparative study based on Boolean algebras. This study aimed at better understanding of Iranian society and identifying ups and downs that Iranian society has passed on the road to democracy regarding to communicative action, the public sphere and civil society since constitutional revolution until now, and tries to answer this question that how the relationship between communicative action, public sphere, civil society and democracy can be explained? Accordingly, the theoretical concepts of the research were reviewed and extracted from views of Arendt, Habermas, Gramsci, Lipset, Alain de Benoist and Bashiriyeh to get indices and indicators for these concepts. Then according to these indicators the situation of the communicative action, public sphere, civil society and democracy in five historical periods (since the constitutional movement to the tenth presidential election) were narrated and analyzed. During the narrative analysis of each period of time based on the presence and absence of each concept exemplar, zero (low intensity) and one (high intensity) were placed in Boolean table for each historical juncture and the relationship between these concepts were studied. Based on the findings it can be argued that despite the attempts and measures done by society, elites and part of state or government, three concepts of communicative action, public sphere and civil society were not so strong except in a few cases. Therefore, in different historical periods, lack of one of these three insufficient conditions impeded realization of democracy in Iran. Among these five historical periods, historic period of nationalization of oil is the only time that Iranian attempts to reach to the democracy has got a fruit and made democracy possible, thanks to the communicative action, public sphere and civil society. During the constitutional movement the historical cases that had traces of presence of communicative action or public sphere and during the reform era historical cases that referred to civil society and public sphere are more than the events that lack these concepts. But in the revolution and tenth presidential election of Iran the historical cases referring to communicative action, public sphere, civil society and democracy were less than events referring to these concepts. Manuscript Document
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      165 - Polis-based Thinking and the conditions of possibility of the Greek Political Philosophy's Procreation
       
      What is necessary to understand the procreation of Greek political thought and it's flourishing and development in the fourth century BC, is contemplating on "polis" category and its place in the concrete life of ancient Greeks. We will take into account, Plato and Aris Full Text
      What is necessary to understand the procreation of Greek political thought and it's flourishing and development in the fourth century BC, is contemplating on "polis" category and its place in the concrete life of ancient Greeks. We will take into account, Plato and Aristotle’s attempts as prototypes of the classical political philosophy in the course of discussing polis and its implications, and thereby try to articulate arguments in favor of principal thesis in which Plato's political philosophy and Aristotle's one, in spite of some individual inconsistencies in political thought-those related to their distinct metaphysics- but at the end of the day, they should be considered as a polis-oriented thinking. In the other words, by analyzing Greek political philosophy from a general point of view, sometimes we can grasp some insights that sometimes diminished under the haphazard and detailed commentaries. Perhaps we can exploit this phrase so that "agreement between the ideas of the two philosophers" is more plausible from Greek political thought’s individual elements point of view than metaphysical one. In this article through the extension of this study to the philosophers’ works of Greek period, We attempt to show that polis-based thinking as a dominant pattern in the contemplating on "the political" affairs, have been survived in the mental world of the Greek philosophers, even at the period of Hellenism in which the actual context of its premier procreation had been perished. Manuscript Document
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      166 - Problem Methods in Interpreting Plato's works
       
      Although Socrates did not write a word and just sufficed to oral instruction during his life, Plato is considered among the best authors and literarians… through writings his different pieces of works. Plato spent most of his life on writing continuously and death was t Full Text
      Although Socrates did not write a word and just sufficed to oral instruction during his life, Plato is considered among the best authors and literarians… through writings his different pieces of works. Plato spent most of his life on writing continuously and death was the only thing that stopped him. The result of this long period of writing is a collection of works with various topics and titles including defining moral virtues like Religiousness and courage and self-control to philosophical arguments about the universe, law and the government. Even though his works’ chronological order is not clear, Plato has written a lot of works about all these various topics. For instance, with regard to politics and governing, he also has written 'Republic", 'statesman', and 'Laws'. This collection with such a variety has made its understanding a bit complicated from some respects that this complicacy has led to some misunderstandings of Plato's thoughts. To avoid such misunderstandings requires one how to read and deal with them. Due to differences in the method of interpretation and dealing with text and subject of the classic period with the contemporary issues and problems, before discussing Plato's thoughts, this paper tries to focus on reading and dealing of Plato's works. Meanwhile, this study seeks a way to read Plato's works through investigating his writing style, complicacy and multi-dimensionality of his texts, viewing the artistic atmosphere of cities in Greece, using myth and allegory and showing the effects of socio-political status. The requirements of such interpretation shows in understanding Plato’s works, Questionable and hermeneutic dealing with texts can works, rather than having Strauss's esotericism. Manuscript Document
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      167 - The Examination of Political Participation among Iranian Society’ Middle Class
      حسن  آب‌نیکی
      Studies show that there is a significant relationship between political participation of individuals and their social class. In other words, a similar behavior pattern can be seen regarding political participation among individuals belonging to a special social class th Full Text
      Studies show that there is a significant relationship between political participation of individuals and their social class. In other words, a similar behavior pattern can be seen regarding political participation among individuals belonging to a special social class that can be extended to all of this class. Here in urban middle class, knowing political behavior and the kind of its political participation based on this class’ significance in urban democratic class is very important, because of the importance of this class in modern democratic systems. Iranian urban middle class has played an important role in important historical intervals and in political and social events especially after constitution revolution. In this essay, it is cleared through the political participation of middle class that high political consciousness among the middle class along with high education and their high job position has been led to reducing political participation and shaping political discontent among the members of the middle class. The findings of this research show that the main problem of middle class is the political problem. In fact, Iranian new middle class feels the most inability and incapacity in the politics due to its fairly appropriate economic status. Manuscript Document
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      168 - Transition to democracy and Ethnic Conflict’s Raising and Failing
           
      Ethnic conflict and its related factors is one of the social sciences’ main research areas, especially in the recent decades. Ethnic conflict revolutions’ parallelism with transition process to democratization, especially after 2th half of 20th century, make political s Full Text
      Ethnic conflict and its related factors is one of the social sciences’ main research areas, especially in the recent decades. Ethnic conflict revolutions’ parallelism with transition process to democratization, especially after 2th half of 20th century, make political sociology of ethnic conflicts focus on this scientific scope that what requirements and circumstances can be provided by transition of democracy for revolution of ethical conflicts. The main question is, whether democratization transition and its process, inevitably is concomitant with ethnical conflicts or transition process can provide an opportunity that prevents ethnical conflicts through the promotion of political negotiations in innovative democratic governments? Regarding lack of theoretical researches in this scope, using qualitative analysis, we studied the conditions through which, democratization transition provides a background both for ethnical conflicts’ moderation and also exacerbation. Institutional strategies that prevent ethnical conflicts, ethnic conflicts and democratic processes’ flourishing and authoritarian regimes’ typology across ethnic variation are the present study’s other interesting areas that have been investigated. Manuscript Document
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      169 - Dworkin and intergenerational justice problems: An introduction to theory of intergenerational equality of recourses
             
      Theories of justice are bound to look at the future when it comes to outline the requirements of justice. Intergenerational concerns that have been aggravated by environmental problems and natural resource depletion have brought out new issues including the realm, patte Full Text
      Theories of justice are bound to look at the future when it comes to outline the requirements of justice. Intergenerational concerns that have been aggravated by environmental problems and natural resource depletion have brought out new issues including the realm, pattern, and criterion of intergenerational justice. Although Dworkin has not discussed independently about intergenerational justice, the theory of equality in resources, providing uniform images of values of human societies such as justice, has the capability to respond to these issues. The principles of independence and Interpretation of values, together with the specific interpretation of rights, make it possible provide the theory of intergenerational equality of resources using the deconstruction method. This theory is individualistic considering all future generations along with preserving the human dignity of everyone. This goal is achieved by observing the two principles: first, it must show equal concern for the fate of every person throughout the ages. Second, it must respect equally the personal responsibilities of each person towards their lives. Manuscript Document
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      170 - The Role of Information Technology on Indicators Of Political Socialization )with the emphasis on the Islamic Republic of Iran)
         
      Mutual relations between people and political system and also factors, political effects and functions of this interaction, are one of the most important discussions in field of political society, obviously political socialization. The arrival of information Technology Full Text
      Mutual relations between people and political system and also factors, political effects and functions of this interaction, are one of the most important discussions in field of political society, obviously political socialization. The arrival of information Technology (IT) into the new world, affected all the structures and aspects of human life. Following these effects, the flow of the formation of political socialization and its elements changed, which has been examined as the focal point in this paper. On the one hand, the performance process of institutions such as family, peer group, mass media, education and the government which have the political reproductivity role and from the other hand the process Information Technology influence on the pattern of political socialization and consolidation of values in political behaviors of people and its consequences, are the subjective goals of this paper. Findings of this study, which have been presented through documentary method in the framework of an analytic model, shows that through two raising mechanisms of individuals political awareness and civil involvement Information Technology, imposes its political effects on political socialization process within the framework of political culture of the society. Manuscript Document
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      171 - Analysis and assessment of Diversity and Tolerance in the Political Thought of John Rawls
        ali alihoseini  
      This paper aims to examine the question of how we can respect multiculturalism and at the same time defend the rights of the individuals against ethnic minorities and cultural groups? In response to the question, we examined Rawls's strategy mentioned in his book of "po Full Text
      This paper aims to examine the question of how we can respect multiculturalism and at the same time defend the rights of the individuals against ethnic minorities and cultural groups? In response to the question, we examined Rawls's strategy mentioned in his book of "political liberalism" emphasizing on the separation of rationality from reasonableness. But at the end it becomes clear that Rawls's definition of reasonableness is extremely strict and restrictive, and in spite of the distinguishing rationality and reasonableness can be a good basis for tolerance in multicultural societies, but this definition is highly detrimental to this goal. This research has exploited interpretive approach, conceptual analysis and critical assessment as the theoretical strategies and based on this fact, it deals with the issue of cultural diversity as a context of forming the subject introduction and also considering Rawls's theory of justice as background in which the idea of reasonableness and rationality was born and grown. Manuscript Document
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      172 - Power and the Commune: Priority of Power to Right in Political Philosophy of Spinoza
       
      Baruch Benedict Spinoza’s theoretical constellation formulates a theory of right and law that prepares bases for his special rationalism and humanism that is specific to republican political philosophy. This philosophy of right and law relies on metaphysics of power and Full Text
      Baruch Benedict Spinoza’s theoretical constellation formulates a theory of right and law that prepares bases for his special rationalism and humanism that is specific to republican political philosophy. This philosophy of right and law relies on metaphysics of power and prefigures the “Multitude” and the “Commune”. This philosophy of right and law is one of the many unique aspects of Spinoza`s practical philosophy. Spinoza`s theory of right as articulated in his political essays Ethica and Tractatus Politicus is as following: The more right extends, the more power extends and since society or commune produces more power, it produces more right. This unique aspect of practical philosophy of Spinoza relies on some aspects of old theory of right and law. In other words, the right and law theory of Spinoza can be considered one of Spinoza’s bonds with old traditions. The right and law Spinoza theory relies on “power” and considers “Multitude” and “Commune”. Manuscript Document
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      173 - The Ratio of Globalization and Justice in the Political Thought of Anthony Giddens and Emmanuel Wallerstein
      حسن  آب‌نیکی
      Globalization is one of the key concepts in political science and sociology, which has become one of the major discourses in the literature of these two areas of social sciences. Many thinkers referred to it as the “Discourse of Globalization,” which is a discourse that Full Text
      Globalization is one of the key concepts in political science and sociology, which has become one of the major discourses in the literature of these two areas of social sciences. Many thinkers referred to it as the “Discourse of Globalization,” which is a discourse that can measure the proportion of many concepts in political thought in relation to it. One of these concepts is justice. Justice, with any definition, is the starting point for discussing globalization. Is it possible, in principle, to expect justice to be realized under the globalization discourse? In other words, what is the relation between justice and globalization? To answer the question, this paper addresses the views of the two thinkers of the globalization era, Anthony Giddens and Emmanuel Wallerstein. Essentially, I argue that Giddens believes in the Kantian assumption that justice is inherent in globalization, and only with the creation of a civil society in the current era, societies can attain globalization. On the other hand, Wallerstein rejected this claim and placed justice in the age of globalization under the overshoot of the capitalist system. Manuscript Document
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      174 - “Radical Liberal Democracy” as Foucault’s Alternative for Political Modernity
      Ali Salehifarsani
      The goal of this article is an evaluation of concrete effect of Foucault’s fundamental and genealogical criticism of modernity, and examining Foucault’s ideas that signify the political system and agency. Foucault believes in the de-transcendentalization of power and kn Full Text
      The goal of this article is an evaluation of concrete effect of Foucault’s fundamental and genealogical criticism of modernity, and examining Foucault’s ideas that signify the political system and agency. Foucault believes in the de-transcendentalization of power and knowledge in modern era. The problem is the effect of acceptance of de-transcendentalization of power on political agency, state and governmentality. Foucault’s de-transcendental view does not consider the political as something that is related to sovereignty, and by placing it in an undeterministic framework that is simultaneously cultural and political, he calls it governmentality. Sovereignty doesn't exist in a de-transcendental framework as it may make a person inferior to do something that he wants himself. In contrast, governmentality effects on the practice of ruled, as this is context of self-changing and self-regulating in their everyday behaviors. However, they are not made to do a work that they do not like, but power exercises freely and through the objectification of the subject over them. In response to this problem, Morris Barbie's theory of political modernity, applied as heuristic device for definition of the political and method of application is Arthur Lovejoy's history of ideas. The theory of political modernity prompts dichotomy of freedom-subjugation in two dimensions of state and civil society, in so that correspond with liberal democracy system through priority of subjugation. Hypothesis of this article is that Foucault’s belif that political modernity and liberal democracy system prompts the priority of subjugation and it leads to radical liberal democracy. Manuscript Document
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      175 - The Role of Civil Institutions on the Effectiveness of the State in Iran; Determining and Prioritizing the Indices1
       
      This research examines the role of civil institutions on the efficiency of state in different domains and with different qualities. To examine this for judicial, legislative and, executive powers separately, different indexes are suggested and are prioritized based on t Full Text
      This research examines the role of civil institutions on the efficiency of state in different domains and with different qualities. To examine this for judicial, legislative and, executive powers separately, different indexes are suggested and are prioritized based on the opinioins of excperts. This research is descriptive-explanatory in its nature and uses both quantitive and qualitive methods in a composition that will be explained in the paper. According to the results, the highest priority is related to the executive system and to the role social institutions have in increasing the transparency of the executive power. On the contrary, the lowest priority is for the role social institutions have in how the representatives of judicial system are chosen for its different tasks. The latter is something that calls for more investigations. Manuscript Document
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      176 - Violence in the civil state of Hobbes: Rereading Leviathan
      mohamad ali tavana  
      Leviathan is one of the first modern political philosophy texts, which attempt to replace regular civil state of market society and the bourgeois state with the state of nature in which is war of all against each other. Now, the question is: Is civil state of Hobbes is Full Text
      Leviathan is one of the first modern political philosophy texts, which attempt to replace regular civil state of market society and the bourgeois state with the state of nature in which is war of all against each other. Now, the question is: Is civil state of Hobbes is free of violence? It seems that the transition from the state of nature to the civil state is not end of violence, but besides the obvious activist violence, it reinforces more hidden forms of violence including action-accepting and symbolic violence (Hypothesis). This article, in order to understanding and analyzing the types of violence in the civil state of Hobbes, uses the theoretical framework of Slavoj Zizek (theoretical framework). It seems that the origin of activist violence, action-accepting and symbolic in Hobbes's civil state can be found on several factors; The first is that the social phobia that is affected by the evil nature of human still continues in civil state. Second, in the civil state of Hobbes, the governor that has superior authority (sovereignty) is the exception. Third, the ruler for containing the unleashed violence of nature of state, resorts to the force of law, common law and morality, which itself is repulse, repression and Constraint. In other words, it makes a part of citizens in favor of other part, exclusion, repression or limit (the findings). The present article uses Text- author centered hermeneutic method (method). Manuscript Document
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      177 - From Politology to Political Practice: The Ontology of the Relation between Politics and the Political
      Faramarz  Taghilou
      Politics as a philosophy in traditional understanding and as a science in modern understanding of it, takes for granted the possibility of obtaining objective knowledge of the political as its subject matter. But contemporarily, reflective thinking about the relation be Full Text
      Politics as a philosophy in traditional understanding and as a science in modern understanding of it, takes for granted the possibility of obtaining objective knowledge of the political as its subject matter. But contemporarily, reflective thinking about the relation between theory and practice in politics, has been concluded that thinking about the political corresponds with acting politically, i.e. intending to power. Thus, the main question of this article is that how our understanding of relation between politics and the political with regard to the relation between the ontological and the political has been transformed? Our hypotheses is that in the analysis of political ontology, politics and the political are entangled in a mutual relation in which politology and political practice act as a two sides of a coin. This relation has been analyzed in two dimensions, first: from traditional and modern perspective of the political as particular entity or something to be and second from the perspective of the political ontologically as a being in itself in the context of contemporary critical thought from existential phenomenology to post-structuralism. In analyzing the political as an entity, issues concerning the differences between political and other social entities gets importance. In contrast, the political in its ontological rendition, deals with fundamental problems about the constitution of political life through transformation in theory and practice. Therefore, concentrating on the analysis of political ontology reflectively as a method concerning the analysis of theoretical issues on the second order or meta-theoretical level that itself defines our theoretical framework, the effect of transformation in understanding the relation between politics and the political on the transformation of our subjectivity in respect to the manner of representing the political, has been studied. Thinking critically about the “self” as a conclusion of implementing reflective method in analyzing political ontology, renders critical consciousness about the transformative nature of self/other relationship as a signifier of the political and also beside detecting the negative dimension of the political as a domination and antagonism, focuses on searching new possibilities of political being positively that denotes to co-understanding, reconciliation and emancipation. Manuscript Document
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      178 - The Relation between Alienation and Citizenship in Herbert Marcuse' Poltical Thought
        Azadeh  Shabani
      Many of the political thinker whose matters of concern were human and humanity, criticized the problems of modern society trying to find way out of such problems. One of the most important problems of the world today, is "alienation" which brings reduction for original Full Text
      Many of the political thinker whose matters of concern were human and humanity, criticized the problems of modern society trying to find way out of such problems. One of the most important problems of the world today, is "alienation" which brings reduction for original citizenship and decay for humanity. Among those thinkers who have criticized the situation of alienation, one can mention Herbert Marcuse. According to Herbert Marcuse, realization of a better society depends on emancipation of subjects. From his point of view, the alienated man lives individually for that solidarity between such men has been suppressed effectively, where such solidarity is now the key of emancipation for the mankind. Herbert Marcuse by criticizing the problems of modern society and in contrast to the alienation of the human beings, prepare an alternative situation which contains the characteristics of original citizenship where people cooperate and have powerful links with one another instead of staying individual and isolated. Manuscript Document
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      179 - The Impact of Political Factors on Economic Relationships in the First Decade of the Iran's Revolution
      Abbas  Hatami Hossein Masoudnia Davood  Najafi
      By the 1960s, the argument was that economic phenomena were purely economic subjects. But since the 1970s, with the revival of interdisciplinary studies, a literature has emerged that argued political factors are effective on economic phenomena. Inspired by this literat Full Text
      By the 1960s, the argument was that economic phenomena were purely economic subjects. But since the 1970s, with the revival of interdisciplinary studies, a literature has emerged that argued political factors are effective on economic phenomena. Inspired by this literature and with the focus on the first decade of the Islamic Republic's political economy, this article attempts to indicate how the five political factors, including revolution, war, political instability, political fragmentations, and ultimately the social background of government have affected economic phenomena. To doing so, firstly, this article shows how the war reduced the government's oil revenues in the decade. Secondly, it explains how political instabilities led to a reduction in foreign investment in this period. Thirdly, by emphasizing political fragmentations, it reveals how this factor led to a lack of economic consensus among political elites. Finally, it becomes clear that how the social background of the revolutionary state helped to the emergence of populist economic policies in Iran that time. All these findings show how far were the economic phenomena influenced by political factors and reflected its requirements in the first decade of the revolution. Manuscript Document
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      180 - Comparative Study of Hobbes, Locke and Rawls' Ideas in the light of the Hypothetical Position of the Social Contract
      mokhtar nouri Majid tavasoli
      In the modern paradigm of political philosophy, we are faced with a hypothetical position that called social contract. The mentioned paradigm is from Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau to draw the origins of the legitimacy of the political society and the various categories of Full Text
      In the modern paradigm of political philosophy, we are faced with a hypothetical position that called social contract. The mentioned paradigm is from Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau to draw the origins of the legitimacy of the political society and the various categories of political philosophy, such as security and property. John Rawls restored the social contract again in the late 20th century. It seems that the purpose of using this hypothetical position from political philosophers is to provide a way of "knowing" about politics. The present article seeks to comparatively assess the position of the hypothetical social contract in the political thought of Hobbes and Locke with the thought of John Rawls in the contemporary era. Findings of the research indicate that the use of the hypothetical position of the social contract from the modern thinkers has a deeper position, while this position is only a representation tool for John Rawls. Because Rawls did not try to use the position of Hobbes and Locke to explain forming political society and its legitimacy, and was only seeking justification justice. For this purpose, we have used a comparative method for matching the ideas and the library method is also a tool for collecting information. Manuscript Document
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      181 - Political Ideonomy of "Basic Needs" model (the relationship between development and political thought in Basic Needs model 1(
      مهدی مظفری نیا    
      The condition of success and reasons of failure of development strategies and plans, has been one of the most important “development studies” issues. It has been explained in different ways; such as that there is strong relationship between efficiency of development str Full Text
      The condition of success and reasons of failure of development strategies and plans, has been one of the most important “development studies” issues. It has been explained in different ways; such as that there is strong relationship between efficiency of development strategies and plans and development theories. According of paradigmatic-implicative theory, which has explained the relation of development theories and political thought and identifies the development theory as one of the practical implication of political thought, one of the conditions of success of development strategies and development plans can be referred to the political thought foundation. So we explore the political thought supporting the Basic Needs model. We use “qualitative content analysis” method for showing the political foundation of Basic Needs model, which is one of the most important development models In 1970s, is based on “the least advantaged are benefitted and not hurt or forgotten”, in correspondence with John Rawls's "Justice as Fair". Manuscript Document
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      182 - Discourse Analysis of The Relation between Political Theory and Political Action in Ancient Greece
        Ali  Alihosseini r w alireza aghahosseini
      Contemporary approaches interpreted political theory as ignoring political reality, lacking a real problem and more subject of the abstract and metaphysical dignity. The research is opposed to this view and attempting to interpret political theory as engaging in politic Full Text
      Contemporary approaches interpreted political theory as ignoring political reality, lacking a real problem and more subject of the abstract and metaphysical dignity. The research is opposed to this view and attempting to interpret political theory as engaging in political reality. For this purpose, this study intends to present a discursive conception of ancient Greek political theory and its relationship with political action - as a criterion of political reality. For this reason, the writers, first of all, look at the genealogy of the conditions for the emergence of political theory in ancient Greece. Then, by choosing the concept of polis as the central sign of ancient Greek political theory, explaining the centrality of this concept. The following section attempts to reveal the relation of discourse of the polis with the fundamental elements of the ancient Greek political theory. The last issue is about the quality and the relationship between political theory and political action in ancient Greece. This research uses the assumptions of discourse theory to support its claim. Manuscript Document
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      183 - Ideal City of Ghazali: A Utopia Based on the Reform
      Tayebeh Mohammadi kia
      The article explains Ghazali's solutions about the crises of his time. He designs a utopia based on happiness that is from an esoteric reading of religion. The city is based on a policy of reform and tolerance morality. Ghazali makes his ideal society based on triples o Full Text
      The article explains Ghazali's solutions about the crises of his time. He designs a utopia based on happiness that is from an esoteric reading of religion. The city is based on a policy of reform and tolerance morality. Ghazali makes his ideal society based on triples of religion, ethics and politics. He expresses the goal of creating this society is the achievement of the members of society to the happiness in the hereafter. This goal is seen in the works of Muslim scholars. We can say that happiness in the hereafter is a common goal among Muslim scholars and Ghazali also writes his vision within this tradition. He poses the reform as an effective way to solve the emerging crises in religion, society and politics, and with an emphasis on religious reform, propose an ideal society. Manuscript Document
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      184 - Factors and barriers affecting the Rolling of civic institutions In the efficiency of the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran
       
      Civic institutions play an important role in the efficiency of governments. The World Bank data and the emphasis of global theorists on the role of civic institutions demonstrate the importance of these institutions. In Iran, too, civil society organizations are more or Full Text
      Civic institutions play an important role in the efficiency of governments. The World Bank data and the emphasis of global theorists on the role of civic institutions demonstrate the importance of these institutions. In Iran, too, civil society organizations are more or less active in various fields and can play an effective role in government efficiency. But for effective rolling, we need to fully understand the obstacles and factors affecting this rolling according to the experience of civil society activists. In this article, using the available documentary sources, the existing civil institutions with national scope were identified. Then, with the opinion of experts in this field and using the Delphi technique, eleven civil institutions were selected in three groups: cultural, social and economic. In the next stage, eleven focus group meetings were held with at least five activists from each of the civil institutions and government experts in the relevant field and academic experts. In these meetings, the effective factors and obstacles of the role of civic institutions in the efficiency of the government were discussed, and the discussions were put on paper and coded, and the coding went to the stage of saturation. According to the data obtained in the previous stage, the key points of the focus meetings were extracted, which finally in a separate category of effective factors and effective barriers, 23 effective factors and 46 effective barriers in the rolling of civic institutions on government efficiency were extracted. According to the results of the previous stage, it was found that the most important factor in the role of civic institutions in government efficiency is the government itself and the government is not interested in playing an effective role of civic institutions and if the government allows, civil institutions will play a very effective role in government efficiency. Also, according to the results of this study, barriers affecting the role of civic institutions in government efficiency are more important than effective factors. This shows a kind of distrust and pessimism of the government towards civil institutions. Manuscript Document
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      185 - Isaiah Berlin; the Agonistic Liberalism Plan Based on Value Pluralism
         
      Finding the relation between liberalism and pluralism is one of such issues that the advocates and opponents of the doctrine of liberalism have been discussing in many respects. Some consider liberalism as the only doctrine through which pluralism can be realized, and s Full Text
      Finding the relation between liberalism and pluralism is one of such issues that the advocates and opponents of the doctrine of liberalism have been discussing in many respects. Some consider liberalism as the only doctrine through which pluralism can be realized, and some do not see it consistent with pluralism because of its universal claim. This led Isaiah Berlin as the prominent thinkers of the twentieth century to examine the possibility of a pragmatic pluralism-based agonistic liberalism, and to propose solutions to liberalism from a situation in which it was accused of not being reconciled with pluralism. In this article, the purpose is to use the descriptive-analytical method and to collect data based on library resources, also by asking the question of what Isaiah Berlin's approach to reconciling liberalism with pluralism? The hypothesis is that Isaiah Berlin, with the design of value-oriented pluralism in the framework of liberalism, sought to reconcile liberalism with pluralism. Berlin's idea of criticism will also be criticized. In sum, comparing the arguments of Berlin on the one hand and the opponents of the reconciliation of liberalism and pluralism on the other, the result is that liberalism is neither in complete harmony, nor in complete dissonance with pluralism, but liberalism can, to a certain extent, accept the adoption of pluralism, which will not endanger its credible values for survival. Manuscript Document
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      186 - Critical Examination of the Theories of collective Personal owners From the perspective of the pattern of political theories
         
      In his book Wisdom and Government, Mehdi Haeri Yazdi explains his political theory about relation of government and people. The theoretical theme of Haeri’s view of delegacy of collective proprietorships can be considered as theoretic effort to establish collective prop Full Text
      In his book Wisdom and Government, Mehdi Haeri Yazdi explains his political theory about relation of government and people. The theoretical theme of Haeri’s view of delegacy of collective proprietorships can be considered as theoretic effort to establish collective proprietorships, the republic sovereinty of government, government’s people-warranted authority, delegacy on behalf of people, foundation of government’s legitimacy based on people’s opinion, and government’s being coresponsible for its people as well as paying attention to the mutual role and status of religion and politics. This theory is titled “Delegacy of collective proprietorships”. Based on his studies in the natural and historical life of humanbeings, Mehdi Haeri Yazdi has tried to portray a different view of the mutual relationship between people and government. The goal of current study is to analyze Theory of collective proprietorships based on analytical framework of political theories. Therefore, the question it poses could be phrased as “Is the theory of collective proprietorships credible with regard to the fourfold criteria of possibility of production, production strategies, means of production, and the type of production?” Using library research techniques and descriptive-analytical approach, this study has analyzed Mehdi Haeri Yazdi’s views. To this end, it is presumed that a political theory is credible when side by side with answering the questions in this study, lends itself properly to evaluation of the fourfold criterion. The findings of this study demonstarte that despite Haeri Yazdi’s sincere efforts, his theory suffers from shortcomings that are pointed out in this study. Following a review of his theory, we have tried to analyze his theory with regard to political theories. Overall, viewing Haeri’s political theories, taking into consideration his answers to the four major questions that form a political theory, its received criticism—still with regard to the fourfold criteria—his theory is analyzed. Manuscript Document
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      187 - Theoretical Review of the Role of New Information and Communication Technologies In changing Kurdish political behaviors
         
      The present article aims to build a theory about the relationship between information and communication technologies with Kurdish political behaviors. To this end, in order to answer the question "What is the relationship between the new information and communication te Full Text
      The present article aims to build a theory about the relationship between information and communication technologies with Kurdish political behaviors. To this end, in order to answer the question "What is the relationship between the new information and communication technologies and the change of Kurdish political behaviors?" We will give a theoretical explanation of the relationship between globalization and ethnic identities and the theoretical explanation of the relationship of information and communication technologies with ethnic identities. By combining the aforementioned theories, the appropriate theoretical device formulated with the question of the paper will be extrapolated and the research hypothesis will be derived from this theory. Using library resources, theoretical and practical evidences of epistemological transformations and behavior change have been compiled for democratization. By analyzing the seventeen satellite and Internet properties, the way to change behaviors toward peacefulness is shown analytically and descriptively. Referring to the Kurdish Diaspora role and influence and the analysis of changing their strategy toward democratization, Evidence of the impact of satellite and Internet on changing behavior toward democratization and theoretical, case, and secondary evidence findings will be presented within the framework of the theory and research hypothesis. Manuscript Document
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      188 - Dialogue with the Text Skinner and Gadamer Hermenutic Cross
       
      The challenge of methods of proper understanding of thought, in general, and that of political thought, in particular, is a challenge that the thinkers of this field have been facing for the past several centuries. One of these methods is hermeneutics. But hermeneutics, Full Text
      The challenge of methods of proper understanding of thought, in general, and that of political thought, in particular, is a challenge that the thinkers of this field have been facing for the past several centuries. One of these methods is hermeneutics. But hermeneutics, as a method, has at times been criticized for not enjoying the necessary objectivism. The subjective approach and individualistic method latent in it has been challenged by some rival methods. In this article, it has been attempted to attain a synthetic method in a revised form through employing comparative philosophical method and using analytical tools and concepts of Skinner and Gadamer’s hermeneutics in reading the text. The teachings of Skinner and Gadamer have been used in a comparative form so that by transition from them to a synthetic method is attained for understanding thought. In this method, while using the technique of speech act used by Skinner’s hermeneutics, the role of audience in finding the final meaning through Gadamer’s method is considered. This synthetic method of reading the text is not free from influence of revised and constructionist methods. Manuscript Document
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      189 - Investigating the Feeling of Relative Deprivation among the Baluch and its Effects on Political Violence
        reza mahmoudoghli
      اعزازي، شهلا (1380) جامعه‌شناسی خانواده، تهران، روشنگران و مطالعات زنان.## اي اپتر، ديويد و چالرز اف.## اندي بين (1380) اعتراض سياسي و تغيير اجتماعي، ترجمه محمدرضا سعيدآبادي، تهران، پژوهشکده مطالعات راهبردي.## پاشایی، عباس (1369) فرهنگ اندیشه نو، تهران، مازیار.## تي Full Text
      اعزازي، شهلا (1380) جامعه‌شناسی خانواده، تهران، روشنگران و مطالعات زنان.## اي اپتر، ديويد و چالرز اف.## اندي بين (1380) اعتراض سياسي و تغيير اجتماعي، ترجمه محمدرضا سعيدآبادي، تهران، پژوهشکده مطالعات راهبردي.## پاشایی، عباس (1369) فرهنگ اندیشه نو، تهران، مازیار.## تيلي، چارلز (1385) از بسيج تا انقلاب، ترجمه علي مرشدي¬زاد، تهران، پژوهشکده امام خميني و انقلاب اسلامي.## حافظ¬نيا، محمدرضا و مراد كاوياني (1385) «نقش هويت قومي در همبستگي ملي (مطالعه موردي: قوم بلوچ)»، مجله پژوهشي دانشگاه اصفهان، شماره 1 (پياپي 20)، صص 15-47.## ساندرز، ديويد (1380) الگوهاي بي ثباتي سياسي، ترجمه پژوهشكده مطالعات راهبردي، تهران، انتشارات پژوهشكده مطالعات راهبردي.## شيباني، مليحه (1384) «فقر محروميت و شهروندي در ايران»، رفاه اجتماعي، سال پنجم، شماره 18.## شيخ بيگلو، رعنا و دیگران (1391) «تحليل فضايي محروميت و نابرابري‌هاي توسعه در شهرستان‌هاي ايران»، رفاه اجتماعي، سال دوازدهم، شماره 46.## صالحی امیری، سیدرضا (1386) مفاهیم و نظریه‌های فرهنگی، تهران، ققنوس.## فکوهی، ناصر (1378) خشونت سیاسی: نظریات، مباحث، اشکال و راهکارها، پیام امروز.## کرد، یاسر (1389) بررسي برخي عوامل اجتماعي - فرهنگي مؤثر بر گرايش افراد به عضويت در گروه‌های تروريستي در استان سيستان و بلوچستان، پایان‌نامه کارشناسي ارشد.##، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامي ـ واحد اصفهان.## كوهن، آلوين استانفورد (1379) نظریه‌های انقلاب، ترجمه عليرضا طيب، تهران، قومس.## گر، تد رابرت (1377) مدلي علي از منازعات داخلي در خشونت و جامعه، ترجمه اصغر افتخاري، نشر سفير.## گیدنز ، آنتونی (1376) جامعه شناسی، ترجمه منوچهر صبوری، تهران، نشر نی.## لهسایي¬زاده، عبدالعلي (1391) «نقش محروميت نسبي در افزايش خشونت‌هاي شهري مناطق حاشیه‌نشین (مطالعه موردی: شهر کرمانشاه)»، فصلنامه مطالعات شهري، سال دوم، شماره سوم، صص 21-64.## نش، کيت (1387) جامعه‌شناسی معاصر، ترجمه محمدتقي دلفروز، تهران، کوير.## هانتینگتون، ساموئل (1392) سامان سیاسی در جوامع دستخوش دگرگونی، ترجمه محسن ثلاثی، تهران، علم.## هولنـدر ، ادوين پـل (1378) روانشناسی اجتماعی: رهبـری و قـدرت تأتیــر ارتبـاط جمعی بر افكار عمومی و فعالیت سیاسی، ترجمــة احمـد رضـوانی ، مشهــد ، شركت بـه نشـر.## Bernburg, Jon Gunnarand Thorolfur horlindsson,and Inga Dora Sigfusdottir (2009) Relative Deprivation and Adolescent Outcomes in Iceland: A Multilevel Test, The University of North Caroiina Pres.## Boswell, T. Dixon, W. (1990) “Dependency and Rebellion”, ASR, 55 (4), 540-559.## Chandra, Siddharth and AngelaWilliams Foster (2005) ‘‘The Revolution of Rising Urban Social Disorders of the 1960s”, Social Science History, 29:2, 299–332.## Davies, J. C. (1962) "Toward A Theory Of Revolution", American, Sociological Review, 27 (1) pp. 5-19.## Dawson, J. I. (2001) Latvia’s Russian minority: balancing the imperatives of regional development and environmental justice Political Geography, No. 20, pp. 787–815.## Duncan, G (1968) A dictionary of sociology. Routledge and Kegau Paul, London.## Gatti, U., Tremblay, R. E., Vitaro, F., & McDuff, P. (2005) Youth gangs, delinquency and drug use: A test of the selection, facilitation, and enhancement hypotheses. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46.## Gurr, Ted Robert (1968) Psychologicat Factors in Civil Violenc, World Politics.## -------------------- (1970) Why Men Rebel, Princelon, n. g, Princton University Press.## -------------------- (1973) “The Renolution Change Nexlus,” Compurative Politics.## Messner, E. (1989) “Economic Discrimination and Societal Homicide Rates: Further Evidence on the Cost of Inequality”, American Sociological Review, 54 (4).## Moore, dahlia (2003) “perception of sense of control, relative deprivation, and expectationsof young jews and Palestinians in Israel”, the journal of social psychology, 143 (4) 521-540.## Muller, Edward (1988) “Democracy – Economic Development and Incom Inequality”, ASR, 53 (1), 50-68.## O’Neill, B. (2001) “Generational Patterns in the Political Opinions and Behaviour of Canadians: Separating the Wheat from the Chaff.” IRPP Policy Matters.## Vol. 2, no. 5.## Pearson, Julie A. and Michael D Fallacaro And Joseph E. Pellegrini (2009) “Perceived deprivation in Active Duty Military nurse Anesthetists”, AANA Journal, Vol. 77, No. 1.## Manuscript Document
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      190 - The Effect of Globalization on Civil Institutions in Iran1
          Azadeh  Shabani
      In the field of social sciences and humanities in the 1980s, the phenomenon of “globalization” as well as “civil society” were in the spotlight. Meanwhile, the ratio of these two together has been at the center of attention and analysis of various scholars. The concept Full Text
      In the field of social sciences and humanities in the 1980s, the phenomenon of “globalization” as well as “civil society” were in the spotlight. Meanwhile, the ratio of these two together has been at the center of attention and analysis of various scholars. The concept of civil society in Iran was considered in the mid-seventies (the late 1990s). In this article, using the method of critical realism, the effect of globalization on civil institutions in Iran has been analyzed and it has been shown that between 1997 and 2011 there was no relation between the transformation of civil institutions and globalization in Iran. Critical Realism means that the real, that is, civil institutions, consists of three levels ontological, actuality and factual. Public institutions (participatory) are regarded as the ontological level of the real, social institutions as the actuality level of the real and political institutions as the factual level of the real. Manuscript Document
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      191 - Explaining the Political and Governmental Obstacles of Productive Private Sector Investment in Iranian Economy Using the Hodgson Institutional Approach1
       
      Productive investment is one of the main variables of macroeconomics. Creating favorable conditions for formation and growth of productive investment is one of the essential requirements for the achievement of the country's economic goals, to fix issues and economic pro Full Text
      Productive investment is one of the main variables of macroeconomics. Creating favorable conditions for formation and growth of productive investment is one of the essential requirements for the achievement of the country's economic goals, to fix issues and economic problems and increasing the political and economic power of the Islamic Republic of Iran. In this study, using Hodgson's institutional approach, the main problems and obstacles in the political system and governance structure in the process of formation of productive investment by the private sector is identified and analyzed. In Hodgson's theoretical approach, the existence of dichotomies and contradictions is the factor for the formation of social evolution and economic change. The institutional and environmental conditions of community indicates that these dualities lead to the development or rebound of the community. In this study, four institutional contradictions in Iranian economy have been investigated. These are the preference for short-term programs on long-term plans, the existence of contradictions in the structure of bureaucracy and sovereignty, the value-ideological decision-making and the destructive competition of the commercial sector with the industry sector. Then, their role and influence on economic productive investment are investigated. The study of the contradictions formed in political background and governance structure of the Iranian economy shows that the investment climate in the Iranian economy is inadequate and this has led to the continued economic downturn. Manuscript Document
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      192 - Feasibility of Adapting the Hegel's Desirable State with the Doctrines of Modern Totalitarian States
      Mohammad Abedi Ardakani seyyed ali asghar baghrinejad
      Some states were established, in the twentieth century, which are characterized by the title of “Totalitarian”. They consist of a wide range including conservatives, fascist radical right-wingers and communist radical left-wingers. The nature and behavioral style of the Full Text
      Some states were established, in the twentieth century, which are characterized by the title of “Totalitarian”. They consist of a wide range including conservatives, fascist radical right-wingers and communist radical left-wingers. The nature and behavioral style of these governments are manifest in their doctrines or policies which are more or less rooted in the past. Hence, some thinkers like Karl Popper and Schopenhauer contain that Hegel was one of the philosophers whose trace of thought can be seen in these doctrines. Now, the main purpose of this article is to clarify the validity of this claim by adapting the most important features of Hegel's theory of state with the doctrines of the totalitarian states of the twentieth century, mainly from Nazi or fascist type in Germany and Italy between the two world wars. For this reason, the main question of the present study is: “has Hegel theorized about his desired state in a way that is consistent with the doctrines of the twentieth-century totalitarian states?” The findings of this study suggest that, although it is possible that notions may be found in Hegel's thoughts that are misunderstood or misused by totalitarian states, but overall, what Hegel has proposed about the state and its features is entirely different from the doctrines of the totalitarian states of the twentieth century. This study is descriptive-analytic with a documentary-historical approach and collecting the appropriate data for analysis is done in a library-based way. Manuscript Document
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      193 - Critical Examination of the Foundations of Rawls's Political Justice in Relation to Original Position
        hamze alemi
      John Rawls offers a political definition of justice in the book “Political Liberalism” and believes that this definition, with the properties that he expresses for that, provides the necessary stability for the theory of justice as fairness. Political definition of just Full Text
      John Rawls offers a political definition of justice in the book “Political Liberalism” and believes that this definition, with the properties that he expresses for that, provides the necessary stability for the theory of justice as fairness. Political definition of justice that sometimes Rawls mentions as “Political justice”, changes the conditions of “Original Position” that is mentioned in the book “A Theory of Justice” guarantees the stability justice as fairness, but this action results in some contradictions. By reading Rawls' political justice, this article attempts to study the relationship between “Political justice” and the “Original Position”. The result of this study shows that Rawls' “political justice” have foundations that faces “Original Position” with contradictions, in such a way that removal of “Original Position” in “political liberalism” does not produce the problem. Manuscript Document
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      194 - The Ethics and Politics in the Abu Ali Ahmad Abn Miskawayh Razi’s Political Thought1
      Iraj Ranjbar  
      The study of the relationship of ethics and politics in the thought of Miskawayh Razi forms the problem of this paper, which seeks to prevent any prejudice in the case of priority and Late between the ethics and politics, and their compliance. Their relationship has bee Full Text
      The study of the relationship of ethics and politics in the thought of Miskawayh Razi forms the problem of this paper, which seeks to prevent any prejudice in the case of priority and Late between the ethics and politics, and their compliance. Their relationship has been investigated in terms of points of conceptual Intersection and Confluence as intermittent circles. A theoretical explanation of such a relation is based on Jürgen Habermas’s model in order to examine the relation of ethics and politics in the history of Western political thought. Based on this theory, the “solidarity” of ethics and politics on the axis of the points of conceptual Intersection and Confluence can be explained, as the ending of such points is considered to be the beginning of the “breakup” of these two arenas. Based on this theory, the present article seeks to analyze and process the problem that how can be explained the axis of intersection and the points of Confluence of ethics and politics in Miskawayh Razi’s political thought. Using the methods of qualitative analysis in the explanation and interpretation of the information and texts available in this regard, the present study concluded that in Miskawayh Razi’s political thought the ethics and politics on the circuit of “well-being and happiness” have confluence, and the achievement of prosperity in this world can be made possible through life in a city, with the use of the best possible ways of exercising power in the city. Manuscript Document
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      195 - Psychology of Crowd and Rethinking in Post-political Views: A meta-theoretical standpoint of Elias Canetti
        Negin Nourian-Dehkordi
      The 21st century has seen the rise of crowd waves in various forms and witnessed destructive group behaviors, which are manifestly in contradiction with the image of human as a rational actor. The human was thought to learn from the terrible experiences of the masses of Full Text
      The 21st century has seen the rise of crowd waves in various forms and witnessed destructive group behaviors, which are manifestly in contradiction with the image of human as a rational actor. The human was thought to learn from the terrible experiences of the masses of the twentieth century, today appears as such an irrational de-individualized character that inspired us to rethink the effect of the group on the individual and the tremendous power of the crowd over human behavior. Crowd psychology emphasizes on the importance of passion and emotion in the study of human destructive behaviors in the group and seeks to identify the nature of human crowds and masses and the mechanisms of control of their power. The purpose of this essay is to use the views of Elias Canetti, as a profound observer of Fascism, Nazism and Stalinism, in order to cast light on the rise of crowds in the present century. The main question is what do Canetti perspectives say about the power of the crowds in our time? We will, in response to this question, by qualitative content analysis of part of his works, show that Canetti views can be utilized to deal with crowd phenomena. In addition, for understanding the nature of the masses and crowds and to analyze their power and dynamics and to recognize the mechanisms of control of crowd power and mass uprisings in the 21st century. From the perspective of Canetti crowd psychology, we find that with the erosion of the mechanisms of containment of the crowd power, the danger of mass eruption not only has not banished from our world, but crowd power can appear more threatening and uncontrollable than before. Manuscript Document
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      196 - "The Self" and "The Other" in Mehdi Bazargan
      hamze alemi Saiedalireza Hosseinibeheshti
      The desirable relationship between "the self" and "the other" as the encounter of intersubjectivity, is a critical approach to modernity and defends humanity against the domination of Instrumental wisdom. The thinkers of existential philosophy present this, and Martin B Full Text
      The desirable relationship between "the self" and "the other" as the encounter of intersubjectivity, is a critical approach to modernity and defends humanity against the domination of Instrumental wisdom. The thinkers of existential philosophy present this, and Martin Buber provides a clear theoretical formulation. It is important that we examine this issue in the Religious Intellectualism, which has a critical point of view to modernism. Mehdi Bazargan, as one of the forerunners of the Religious Intellectualism, addresses the issue of religion and modernity based on his religious anthropology and create an “Iranian Subject” with a “Spiritual approach” that, thus, establishing a fundamental link between religious man and modern concepts. This connection is evident in the form of confrontation of "the self" and "the other" in his thinking. Bazargan places the divine-social man in the center of his thinking, and thus providing the conditions for the "the self" and "the other" favorable attitudes and simultaneously linking religion and modernity. Manuscript Document
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      197 - Governance in the Thought and Action Of "Mohammad Ali Foroughi"
        saeede khalili  
      The inefficiency and backwardness in structure of the political system ruling Iran during the Qajar era led to poverty, illness, humiliation and defeat for the people. This means that the metaphysical model of governance has not been able to meet the needs and requirem Full Text
      The inefficiency and backwardness in structure of the political system ruling Iran during the Qajar era led to poverty, illness, humiliation and defeat for the people. This means that the metaphysical model of governance has not been able to meet the needs and requirements of that time. Therefore, the political elites sought to inspire Western civilization to change the paradigm of the ideas governing the political structure of the traditional Iranian system and to adopt a new way of organizing the political matters. Examining the thoughts of these elites indicates an important change in the field of Iranian thoughts, because it was the first time that we were heard concepts such as law, limited power, parliament, justice, and people's government. This approach proves that Iranian society and political structure are moving toward a modern type of government. Among the elites in this field, Mohammad Ali Foroughi has coherent and thoughtful theories about the proper form of government in Iran's political body. Thus, the purpose of this research is to examine the effects of his ideas, to focus on his notion of government, and to answer the question that what kind of government is suitable for the Iran's political structure in his thought. What are the characteristics and components of this government? How was the crystallization of his mental structure about the state in his actions? The research hypothesis is that Foroughi appears to be a constitutionalist with techniques such as constitutional government, the separation of powers, a powerful parliament, the judiciary, and the recognition of civil rights such as freedom of expression and opinion, housing, employment. We have tested the research hypothesis in the context of Skinner's hermeneutical framework. Manuscript Document
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      198 - Civil Relation and Empowerment: Comparative Study of Hannah Arendt and Amartya Sen
      attaallah karimzadeh عباس  منوچهری
      Hannah Ardent as a political philosopher, offering the concept of “civic virtue” and criticizing Liberal democracy, tried to constitute a way of good life in her time. In her version of civic virtue, human as a citizen should be able to secure his/her liberty and equali Full Text
      Hannah Ardent as a political philosopher, offering the concept of “civic virtue” and criticizing Liberal democracy, tried to constitute a way of good life in her time. In her version of civic virtue, human as a citizen should be able to secure his/her liberty and equality, in a context of dialogue and interaction. On the other hand, Amartya Sen in his human development approach, tried to moralize economy in context of Political thought by taking a critical view toward the concept of modernization and economic development. Sen, with the concept of Empowerment, introduced development as freedom, and considered Empowerment as a road to freedom. This notion takes place in an equal and moral context in which each entity of humankind, besides being an agent and capable toward others, has the possibility of dialogue and discussion in democratic situation. In this article, we propose that how the concept of civic virtue in Hannah Ardent has related to human development approach in Amartya Sen, considering human agency in the context. Based on the mentioned question, we assume that the human development approach is in line with civic virtue; which in both the essential priority is human agency. We show that from a civic viewpoint, Empowerment in the context of understanding and interaction has common conceptual and practical grounds with civic virtue as citizenship responsibility in context of dialogue and interaction. Manuscript Document
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      199 - A Study on Hafiz’s Political Thought Based On Spragens Theory
      Ali Bagheri Dolatabadi seyyed shahrokh mousavian
      From the past times, Iranian poets have been main factor and mediator between people and governors. Life style of poets (based on direct relations with government and governor) always protect these relations. Hafiz was not only an exception to this rule, but his life ha Full Text
      From the past times, Iranian poets have been main factor and mediator between people and governors. Life style of poets (based on direct relations with government and governor) always protect these relations. Hafiz was not only an exception to this rule, but his life has strangely tied to the changes of the time and the Dismissal and appointment of the rulers. The main question of the research is how did these developments affect the political thought of Hafez and what was the solution to ending the problems of society in terms of Hafez? To answer the above question, we described the characteristics of Hafez's political thought, based on the application of the Spragens theory (Understanding the problem, Understanding the cause, ideal society, solution). According to the theoretical framework, the findings of the research show that Hafez saw his society political problem in murder, imprisonment, extortion, slander, corruption, insecurity and instability. He considered Hypocrisy and Abuse of power as a factor behind the emergence of protests in society. Hafez's ideal society, in various political, social and cultural spheres, was characterized by avoiding from doing bad things, the emphasis on contentment and modest life, not attention to jealous people, and disregarding the world and power. From the standpoint of Hafez, the solution to these problems is in reformism, the Cultural Revolution, tolerance, Attention to learning from history and Listening to the advices. Manuscript Document
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      200 - The Spiritual-based Theory of Richard Ned Lebow; An Analytical Framework for Explaining Revisionism in International Relations
      ramtin rezaei farideh mohamad alipour
      We should more seriously consider the revisionist approach in foreign policy of states in the theory of International Relations. it, also, is necessary to be studied in a post-structuralist approach with respect to immaterial motives. Richard Ned Lebow’s spirit-based th Full Text
      We should more seriously consider the revisionist approach in foreign policy of states in the theory of International Relations. it, also, is necessary to be studied in a post-structuralist approach with respect to immaterial motives. Richard Ned Lebow’s spirit-based theory, which explains the controversy and challenge in the International Relations arena based on the concept of spirit and motives and its motivations, provides a good framework for studying the state's revisionist attitudes in the field of foreign policy and International Relations. Ned Lebow's theory can also be a good framework for analyzing the foreign policy of the I.R.Iran as a revisionist state. This paper seeks to answer the question that how does the spirit direct governments towards revisionism in International Relations according to Ned Lebow's theory? In response, the essay hypothesized that the soul, through motivations and motives of dignity, pride and greatness, leads governments to revisionism in international relations. Manuscript Document
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      201 - Analyzing "The Political" in Cyberspace From Arendt's Perspective *
         
      As we are convinced about the role and impact of cyberspace and online social networks in human life today, we are more or less equally skeptical about the possibilities, capabilities, and effectiveness of cyberspace for political, democratic and civic change. Particula Full Text
      As we are convinced about the role and impact of cyberspace and online social networks in human life today, we are more or less equally skeptical about the possibilities, capabilities, and effectiveness of cyberspace for political, democratic and civic change. Particularly in the area of political theory, we need to think carefully about cyberspace through the wisdom and political theories to gain a proper understanding of the possibilities of online social networking for politics. This article is a research on the political possibilities of online social networks and evaluating the political implications of cyberspace from an Arendt perspective and its possible placement in the public domain or a virtual agora in relation to Arendt's concepts and minutes of politics. In this assessment, we analyze Hannah Arendt's perception of the political and try to clarify whether virtual social networks can facilitate real political action in a meaningful way or not. In other words, Are virtual networks for politics, opportunity or anti-political and threat? This study shows that while politics from Arendt perspective is inter-disciplinary, pluralistic, participatory, linguistic and dialogic, cyberspace and online social networks are more dominant in personal desires and livelihoods, inappropriateness, overcoming. The social, homogeneous and anti-pluralistic features make their political possibilities in serious doubt. Manuscript Document
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      202 - Prebendal Government: A Theoretical Framework for Understanding Political Corruption
          ali Karimi maleh
      This article provides a theoretical analytical framework for understanding the corruptive functioning of political systems in the form of the idea of prebendalism, which has received little attention at the local political science literature. The concept of prebendalism Full Text
      This article provides a theoretical analytical framework for understanding the corruptive functioning of political systems in the form of the idea of prebendalism, which has received little attention at the local political science literature. The concept of prebendalism and prebendal government is closely linked to the political corruption which itself has various dimensions and specific roots and consequences both at the community and the state level. Based on Joseph's views, the present paper provides a theoretical framework for understanding the issue of political corruption. The Prebendal government describes how elites and brokers operate at the political system level, indicating that the elites, because of their historical-political role and their performance in political positions, enjoy additional special privileges beyond legal ones at the state level and their major goal is further access to economic and political resources. The main question of the article is, what are the characteristics, foundations, and components for the formation of the Prebendal State? Inspired by Joseph's views and use of library resources and applying a historical-descriptive approach, this paper has found that the Prebendal government incorporates a variety of factors such as patrimonialism, clientalism, perception of the state as a market, the lack of a legitimated ideology, leadership weakness, which ultimately lead to outcomes such as permanent conflict at the political system level and deep social inequalities. Manuscript Document
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      203 - The European Medieval Conception of Citizenship: Individualistic or Collectivistic?
      seyed alireza Hoseyni Beheshti
      As Europe entered the Middle Ages and the emergence of a Christian otherworldly perspective together with its individualistic and universalistic nature, the view on the Man and his status, both concerning the society and the state, transformed dramatically. The transfor Full Text
      As Europe entered the Middle Ages and the emergence of a Christian otherworldly perspective together with its individualistic and universalistic nature, the view on the Man and his status, both concerning the society and the state, transformed dramatically. The transformation had its effects on the conception of citizenship inherited from ancient Greece and Rome. The classical and more or less still dominated view on the history of social and intellectual developments of that period, offers an image according to which the spread of Christianity resulted in merging individuality into the community. Here I try to show, through relying on recent and less biased historical researches, that the classical interpretation that views the period as the fading individualism in favor of a collectivism emerged from the teachings of Christianity, the assimilatory political culture dominated early western modern societies, spring from the Renascence and then Enlightenment rather than the Christian culture. Manuscript Document
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      204 - The Theory of Resistance in New Constitutional Thought
      mohammadreza tajik aref masoudi
      The concept of Resistance as a "right", or as a theory in new tradition is from the rudiments of new constitutional ruling system. However, some consider application as right to be a norm and not a base for political undertaking. Its role as a normative principle remini Full Text
      The concept of Resistance as a "right", or as a theory in new tradition is from the rudiments of new constitutional ruling system. However, some consider application as right to be a norm and not a base for political undertaking. Its role as a normative principle reminisces political power limits to rulers, and makes citizens manned with utilities to influence their decisions. The origin of this theory can be traced to the ideas of the most important political philosophers like Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. Hobbes in his theory, de facto, realizes the existence of "focus and some points of resistance" to be sublimating the spirit, but Locke considers the power of the government to be conditioned by the obedience and the practice of rules; in case of disobedience may legitimize the rights of people to revolt and dissolve. Therefore, resistance used to be the natural, ethical, and fundamental right of citizens that can only be resorted in case of breeching or dissolving of the basic principles, or the acquiescing of the majority. This study accounts for the processes of organizing the theory of resistance, based on the "right of resistance" of every member of the society, and considers the thought of constitutional quest as its first theoretical carrier. Manuscript Document
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      205 - A Study of State-Bazaar Relations in the First Decade of the Islamic Republic of Iran (1357-1368)
      Vhid sinaee sara akbari
      After the Islamic Revolution, the relationship between the state and the traditional bazaar as a socio-economic institution changed. At the beginning of the revolution, prominent members of the bazaar community took control of large sections of Iran's economy through th Full Text
      After the Islamic Revolution, the relationship between the state and the traditional bazaar as a socio-economic institution changed. At the beginning of the revolution, prominent members of the bazaar community took control of large sections of Iran's economy through the management of revolutionary and state institutions, and established close relations with the leaders of the Islamic Republic. But in the following years, there were changes in these relationships. For studying this transformation and explaining the relationship between state and the bazaar in the first decade of the Islamic Republic, it can be hypothesized that in the mentioned decade, there were no similar policies towards the bazaar. The Provisional or Movaghat state believed in liberal policies in the field of economics, but under the influence of the resolutions of the Revolutionary Council, the revolutionary conditions and the post-revolutionary unrest, it practically implemented the resolutions of the Revolutionary Council. With the fall of the Provisional government and the rise of left-wing state, traditional bazaar power was challenged, especially in the political and economic spheres. On the contrary, the bazaar tried to prevent the state from dominating the economy and the private sector. The research method is explanatory and data collection is library and documentary. Manuscript Document
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      206 - Barriers to Humanities Development from a Critical Rationalist Perspective: With Looking at Iran
      Leila Sangi Mohammadmahdi mojahedi Abdolamir nabavi Elahe Hejazi
      Different societies need to provide growth and development opportunities in order to improve their social and economic conditions. One of the factors affecting the growth and development in any society is the transformation of the country's scientific structures and the Full Text
      Different societies need to provide growth and development opportunities in order to improve their social and economic conditions. One of the factors affecting the growth and development in any society is the transformation of the country's scientific structures and the spread of knowledge, and in particular, the human sciences. The Islamic Republic of Iran is no exception to this rule. In order to achieve development and improvement of its social and economic conditions, Iran needs to develop science, especially in the field of human sciences, as the basis of society's transformation. The question that is posed here is how do cognitive factors play a role in the lack of development of the humanities in Iran? The main hypothesis in answering this question is that the weakness of rational political structures based on collective wisdom is one of the most important obstacles to the development of science in Iran in the field of humanities. We used from the New Institutionalism framework to analyze this article, which is a social and political theory. Besides this theory, for the epistemological aspect of analysis, the theory of critical rationalism of Popper will be used. Manuscript Document
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      207 - The Analysis of the political literature in contemporary Iran (Case Study: Political Fiction in Diaspora(
       
      Some contemporary fiction has been published outside of Iran. The reason for the emigration of many writers abroad is directly related to the issue of politics, as well as the way they are present and the subject, theme, background and origin of an important part of the Full Text
      Some contemporary fiction has been published outside of Iran. The reason for the emigration of many writers abroad is directly related to the issue of politics, as well as the way they are present and the subject, theme, background and origin of an important part of the works they have created are political. Political fiction in immigration is found with the support of political groups, and the first examples are published in political magazines, and later writers create works with relative independence from political groups. They have written the narrative of the contemporary history of Iran. The Constitutional Revolution and its Liberal aspirations, the coup d'état 19 August and its endless despair and hopelessness, as well as the Islamic Revolution and various issues surrounding it, including the pre-revolutionary struggles and the process of victory and stabilization of the revolution and the emergence of the Islamic Republic and the Imposed war are of these issues. The main issue of this research is how political fiction literature in migration has evolved. This model, that is, knowing the currents, shows the political and social context of the creation of the work, the focal points of support, the starting point and how the flow spreads and continues. Political fiction seems to begin with citations and revelations about the events and issues surrounding the revolution and the events of the 1980s, and reaches to analytical-critical narratives of contemporary history, especially the revolution and the Islamic Republic. Manuscript Document
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      208 - Political Ideonomy of Human Development Theory and Extracting its Policy Implications in Higher Education
            reza mahidi
      The dominant idea of development as economic growth has considered the formation of human capital for achieving the end of economic growth as the main function of higher education institutions in the development process. But the empirical failure of this overly simplifi Full Text
      The dominant idea of development as economic growth has considered the formation of human capital for achieving the end of economic growth as the main function of higher education institutions in the development process. But the empirical failure of this overly simplified idea and the emergence of other critical development theories have brought the necessity of applying different policy priorities in reconsidering the role of key institutions such as higher education to the fore. The purpose of this article is to study human development theory from the viewpoint of political thought and extract its policy implications in the realm of higher education; Thus the implicative narrative theory has been used as a conceptual framework and implication research as a methodology. According to the findings of the article, the political thought of the human development theory by going beyond the binary of individual and society, structure and agency, fact and value, the private and common good, or state and market, has emphasized and concentrated on their complementary role in designing and evaluating a good society. In addition to the importance of higher education institutions in human capital formation for achieving the end of economic growth, human development theory highlights the other key and neglected functions of higher education such as developing freedom, democracy, and social justice in the development process. Manuscript Document
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      209 - Possibilities of Genetic Structuralism Methodology in Analyzing How Ideas are constructed
      Ali Khodaverdi ali alihoseini
      The basic hypothesis of this research is that the ideas, thoughts and attitudes as intellectual practices are all constructed. The main question is that which methodological patterns and prospects can better explain and elaborate how thoughts and views are constructed b Full Text
      The basic hypothesis of this research is that the ideas, thoughts and attitudes as intellectual practices are all constructed. The main question is that which methodological patterns and prospects can better explain and elaborate how thoughts and views are constructed by intellects. It seems that French famous philosopher and sociologist Pierre Bourdieu’s relational or interactional methodological approach and pattern known as Genetic Structuralism can answer better and more completed to this question. Obviously using mentioned approach in analyzing how ideas are constructed by intellects is depended on assuming thoughts as practices of their owners. Manuscript Document
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      210 - Analysis and study of the idea of Islamic government in “Kashf e Asrar”
      amirhossein حاتمی
      One of the most controversial issues about the political thought of the founder of the Islamic Republic is the difference between his political thought in the 20s and 30s with 40s AH onwards. Especially in the two books of "Kashf e Asrar", that he believes in a kind of Full Text
      One of the most controversial issues about the political thought of the founder of the Islamic Republic is the difference between his political thought in the 20s and 30s with 40s AH onwards. Especially in the two books of "Kashf e Asrar", that he believes in a kind of supervision of the Faqih over the political structure and in the book "Velayat-e-Faqih", that he proves the necessity of an Islamic government led by a Fqih. Based on this, an important question arises. Should we not follow the idea of the Islamic government in the book " Kashf e Asrar " in the sense explained in the book "Velayat-e-Faqih"? Many researchers have answered this question in the affirmative from different perspectives. But the findings of the present study, which are mainly based on the study of theoretical and historical contexts, show that, in fact, it has not occurred a fundamental change in the political thought of Ayatollah Khomeini and the idea of Islamic government, which is explained in the book "Velayat-e-Faqih", can also be found in the book " Kashf e Asrar ", of course not explicitly. This lack of explicitness has been mainly due to historical, political and religious reasons. Manuscript Document
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      211 - Foundations and Application of “Otherness” for Social- political Order on the Thought of Richard Rorty
      خلیل اله سردارنیا Hosein Mohseni
      Tolerance and acceptation of “otherness”, is necessary for dynamism of socio-political order. Richard Rorty is one of the important post modern thinkers and philosophers that have had special attention to otherness concept in pragmatism with social utility. The aim of Full Text
      Tolerance and acceptation of “otherness”, is necessary for dynamism of socio-political order. Richard Rorty is one of the important post modern thinkers and philosophers that have had special attention to otherness concept in pragmatism with social utility. The aim of this research is to explain of the foundation of otherness concept and its pragmatic utility in socio- political sphere. In this study, the main question is: principally, what is the relationship between otherness concept and socio-political order in Richard Rorty thought? The final finding of this study shows that: by crticism of meta- narratives and rejecting of general truth, Rorty believes to plural order by emphasis on otherness presence and its utility for socio-political order that has been partly done in western liberal democracies with main shortcomings and difficulties. By criticism of modernity thoughts and its meta narratives and rejection of Descartes’ Cogito on the impact of Emanuel Levinas, believes that attention to necessity of otherness, tolerance and responsibility are important than the concept of “self”. In the thought of Richard Rorty, otherness goes beyond of philosophical contexts and extend to cohesion and sympathy in ethics sphere and to neo-pragmatism democracy in the politics scope. Manuscript Document
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      212 - The Role of "Allameh Tabatabai" Credit Theory in Realization of Transcendent Socio-Political Philosophy
      Hassan Owraei Tahereh Kamalizadeh Maryam Saneapour
      Despite the welcome of scholars and thinkers in the Islamic world and the writing of numerous commentaries and interpretations, many functions of the system of Transcendent philosophy have not yet received enough attention. The socio-political dimensions of Transcendent Full Text
      Despite the welcome of scholars and thinkers in the Islamic world and the writing of numerous commentaries and interpretations, many functions of the system of Transcendent philosophy have not yet received enough attention. The socio-political dimensions of Transcendent philosophy are the most important neglected aspects of this school. Sayyed Mohammad Hossain Tabatabaei is one of the greatest followers of the Sadra's school who, by proposing the theory of credit, marked the extension of Transcendent philosophy in the socio-political path. This article examines the theory of credit perceptions and its role in explaining socio-political philosophy in the context of Transcendent philosophy. Credit perceptions are the mediators between human needs and his actions to meet those needs, and based on this, credit theory can be considered as the link between theoretical philosophy and practical philosophy. According to this theory, society is an irreducible reality to individuals and depends on the realization of a human group that has mutual influence and effect, the realization of this group is subject to the principle of employment. The principle of mutual employment requires mutual interaction and understanding, and consequently requires the creation of language and the continued validity of social structures, justice, power, and ultimately politics. Then, social systems are organized based on the rules and rational orders arising from nature for the good and development of the individual and society. The originality of society from the perspective of Allameh and the series of pre-social credentials in the later credentials provides a more accurate explanation of the perfectionist movement of the universe from plurality to unity and the orientation of individuals towards perfection in the context of transcendent socio-political philosophy and within the framework of Sharia. Manuscript Document