Prebendal Government: A Theoretical Framework for Understanding Political Corruption
ali Karimi maleh
This article provides a theoretical analytical framework for understanding the corruptive functioning of political systems in the form of the idea of prebendalism, which has received little attention at the local political science literature. The concept of prebendalism and prebendal government is closely linked to the political corruption which itself has various dimensions and specific roots and consequences both at the community and the state level. Based on Joseph's views, the present paper provides a theoretical framework for understanding the issue of political corruption. The Prebendal government describes how elites and brokers operate at the political system level, indicating that the elites, because of their historical-political role and their performance in political positions, enjoy additional special privileges beyond legal ones at the state level and their major goal is further access to economic and political resources. The main question of the article is, what are the characteristics, foundations, and components for the formation of the Prebendal State? Inspired by Joseph's views and use of library resources and applying a historical-descriptive approach, this paper has found that the Prebendal government incorporates a variety of factors such as patrimonialism, clientalism, perception of the state as a market, the lack of a legitimated ideology, leadership weakness, which ultimately lead to outcomes such as permanent conflict at the political system level and deep social inequalities.
دوگراف، خیالت و دیگران (1394) چشم¬اندازهای نظری فساد، ترجمه هانیه هژیرالساداتی و دیگران، تهران، آگه.
وبر، ماکس (1374) اقتصاد و جامعه، ترجمه عباس منوچهری و دیگران، تهران، مولی.
هانتینگتون، ساموئل (1370) سامان سیاسی در جوامع دستخوش دگرگونی، ترجمه محسن ثلاثی، تهران، علم.
هیوود، پل (1381) فساد سیاسی، ترجمه قاسم بنیهاشمی و محمد طاهری، تهران، پژوهشکده مطالعات راهبردی.
Alam, M.S.(1989) Anatomy of Corruption: An Approach of the Political Economy of Underdevelopment.The American Journal of Economics and Society,Vol.48.No.4.pp 441-456.
Ekeh, P.P (1975) Colonialism and the Two Publics, A Theoretical Statement. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 17 (1) , pp 91-112.
Joseph, A, R (1987) Democracy and Prebendal Politics in Nigeria, The Rise and Fall of The Second Republic, Cambrige University Press, New York.
Lewis, P (1996) From Prebendalism to Predation, The Political Economy of Decline in Nigeria. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 34 (1), pp 79-103.
Myrdal, G., (1970) The 'Soft State' in Undeveloped Countries. In Unfashionable Economics: Essays in Honour of Lord Balogh, edited by Paul Streeten. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
Nye, J, S (1967) Corruption and Political Development, A Cost- Benefit Analysis. American Political Science Review, pp 417 -427.
Rogow A, Lassewell H (1963) Power, Corruption and Rectitude. Englewood, Cliffs, pp.132-133.
Sandbrook, Richard (1972) “Patrons, clients and Factions, New Dimensions of Conflict Analysis in Africa,” Canadian Journal of Political Science, 5, 111.
Suberu, R.T (2013) Politics and Federal Government in Nigeria in Obadare, E.and Adebanwi, W. (2013) ed Democracy and Prebendalism in Nigeria, Critical Interpretations. New York. Palgrave Macmillan.
Turner, Brian (1981) “Feudalism and Prebendalism” in For Weber, Essays on the Sociology of Fate (Boston, London, and Henley, 208.
Ugwuani, I. B and Nwokedi. C, R (2015) Prebendalism as the Albatross to Democratic Practice and National Development in Nigeria, A Critical Discourse. Journal of Policy and Development Studies, Vol (9), No 4, pp 18-31.
Weber, M. (1951) The Religion of China, Confucianism and Taoism, Macmillan Press, New York.