• List of Articles  

      • Open Access Article

        1 - Globalization and Post- Westphalian Governance, a Focus on the Stances of the Islamic Republic of Iran
        شهروز  ابراهيمي
        The subject matter of the present article is the interaction of national sovereignty with the transnational one in the context of globalization. This study shows that, national sovereignty is not threatened by globalization in itself. Rather, it, maintening its identi Full Text
        The subject matter of the present article is the interaction of national sovereignty with the transnational one in the context of globalization. This study shows that, national sovereignty is not threatened by globalization in itself. Rather, it, maintening its identity, acquires a global identity, so they can coexist with each other. Globalization does not take place merely from above, but there is a new form known as "globalization from below" which lessens the pressures of "globalization from above". Interactive view of the Islamic Republic of Iran can have such influence, and can lessen the pressures of globalization, and positively contribute to transnational sovereignty. Examples of such a view are "dialogue of civilizations", and "public diplomacy". Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Evolution in Concept of Sovereignty in Political and International Approaches
        شهروز  ابراهيمي
        It seems that all the changes and evolutions in the concept of sovereignty have been occurred in theoretical framework, then in sphere of international relations and international laws and other forms of international affairs. National sovereignty and the concept of “na Full Text
        It seems that all the changes and evolutions in the concept of sovereignty have been occurred in theoretical framework, then in sphere of international relations and international laws and other forms of international affairs. National sovereignty and the concept of “nation- state” came to essence as a normative and legal principle after Westphalian Treaty (1648); but this normative and legal principle has never been absolute. So in the 18th and 19th centuries, and in the course of different approaches, it evolved completely and its normative aspect has been declined. The paper attends to four major controversial trends in political and international sphere, which are: a) contrast between communitarianism and universalism, which emerged from the European enlightenment in 18th and 19th centuries; b) contrast between realism and idealism, which came out after the establishing the discipline of international relations and had lasted till to 1970; c) contrast between neo-realism and liberalism, from 1970 to 1990; and d) contrast between realism and neo-realism in one side and critical post-cold war theories. The main discrepancy of these trends is on extent and limits of the state sovereignty. Manuscript Document