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        1 - Transition from Agency of Actors to Citizenship Preparation for Inadequacy of Philanthropist Principles of Capability Approach
        عباس  منوچهری saeed nariman
        Although Amartya Sens capability approach initially emerged in academic area as a critique to normative and ethical economic foundations, especially welfare economics in 1980s, it has been employed extensively in the context of human development. One of the main concern Full Text
        Although Amartya Sens capability approach initially emerged in academic area as a critique to normative and ethical economic foundations, especially welfare economics in 1980s, it has been employed extensively in the context of human development. One of the main concerns of this approach was the marginalization of human being from the axis of development and well-being and its main critique to others was to consider human as a passive being. Some critics have suggested that, although this approach attempted to introduce a new concept of human beings in economic area, it could not go beyond the current economical human of economics and it just provided more humane conception of development than development for human beings. The majority of criticisms of anthropological basis of Sens approach include three critiques of misinterpretation of human notion, being pre-socio political and methodological individualism. In this paper it's attempted to response to these three critiques based on the definition of agency which Sen has expanded in his approach and then design a theoretical-philosophical agency for misinterpretation anthropological foundation of capability approach by transition from agency (of actors) to citizenship. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - The multi-layer model of analysis of 11th presidential elections
        saeed nariman  
        the presidential elections in Iran have always surprised the political analysts and experts. Through the analytical investigations of 11th presidential elections of Iran , both at the level of Iranian and also foreign analysts, it has become clear that the most of this Full Text
        the presidential elections in Iran have always surprised the political analysts and experts. Through the analytical investigations of 11th presidential elections of Iran , both at the level of Iranian and also foreign analysts, it has become clear that the most of this surprise is due to the one-factor and one- dimensional analyses and there is no model that can investigate all effective layers and dimensions in the elections’ results. So this essay is determined to study the 11th elections by means of 3-layer model that its most internal layer is discursive level of elections, its medial layer is based on the relative deprivation theory that tries to illustrate the social and economic circumstances of society and its outset layer, studies the description of the field level of elections and presents the personal, political and social factors that are effective in the elections results Manuscript Document