• List of Articles  

      • Open Access Article

        1 - Governmentality in the History of Political Philosophy
          فاطمه  ذوالفقاریان
        The present article is an attempt to depict three types of government establishment in the process of political philosophy, based on technology, i.e., the field of practical thought and unconscious capability. Government establishment is to adjust communal behavior of h Full Text
        The present article is an attempt to depict three types of government establishment in the process of political philosophy, based on technology, i.e., the field of practical thought and unconscious capability. Government establishment is to adjust communal behavior of humans in a political affair in an acceptable way, to reduce possible threats from it and to increase the occurance of benefit, joy, and pleasure. Accordingly, the three ideal types of political consciousness-metaphysics, physics, and information- form three eras. The present article studies the process of theoretical and practical politics as its negative and positive aspects, and introduces the theory of chance studying crises and transitions. It discusses what different types of government establishment are. Is any regularity in them when the history of political philosophy is involved? What is the realization of government establishment in three eras of consciousness? The purpose here is to offer government establishment in an unbiased theory, which can move from its state as a negative constituent in the era of information to cover all the area of political thought. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Governance in the Thought and Action Of "Mohammad Ali Foroughi"
          saeede khalili  
        The inefficiency and backwardness in structure of the political system ruling Iran during the Qajar era led to poverty, illness, humiliation and defeat for the people. This means that the metaphysical model of governance has not been able to meet the needs and requirem Full Text
        The inefficiency and backwardness in structure of the political system ruling Iran during the Qajar era led to poverty, illness, humiliation and defeat for the people. This means that the metaphysical model of governance has not been able to meet the needs and requirements of that time. Therefore, the political elites sought to inspire Western civilization to change the paradigm of the ideas governing the political structure of the traditional Iranian system and to adopt a new way of organizing the political matters. Examining the thoughts of these elites indicates an important change in the field of Iranian thoughts, because it was the first time that we were heard concepts such as law, limited power, parliament, justice, and people's government. This approach proves that Iranian society and political structure are moving toward a modern type of government. Among the elites in this field, Mohammad Ali Foroughi has coherent and thoughtful theories about the proper form of government in Iran's political body. Thus, the purpose of this research is to examine the effects of his ideas, to focus on his notion of government, and to answer the question that what kind of government is suitable for the Iran's political structure in his thought. What are the characteristics and components of this government? How was the crystallization of his mental structure about the state in his actions? The research hypothesis is that Foroughi appears to be a constitutionalist with techniques such as constitutional government, the separation of powers, a powerful parliament, the judiciary, and the recognition of civil rights such as freedom of expression and opinion, housing, employment. We have tested the research hypothesis in the context of Skinner's hermeneutical framework. Manuscript Document