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        1 - Evaluating Theoretical sample of Habermas based on the relation of Ethics and Republicanism in Political Thought of Kant
        Iraj Ranjbar  
        Habermas divides political thought into two eras of Classic and Modern, in general, to explain the relation of ethics and politics. In his view, ethics and politics had mutual relations in classic era; but, in the beginning of modern era and with creation of two methodo Full Text
        Habermas divides political thought into two eras of Classic and Modern, in general, to explain the relation of ethics and politics. In his view, ethics and politics had mutual relations in classic era; but, in the beginning of modern era and with creation of two methodological and topical evolutions, classic “political philosophy” was replaced by science or “social philosophy” and this causes the increasing separation of ethics and politics; thus, politics which was an institution to ensure the happiness and salvation of citizens became an institution of management and controlling technique in social relations and human instincts. Habermas extended the abovementioned evolution to Kant’s Ideas, too. The purpose of current article, based on the earmarks and features of Kant political thought, is to prove that the mentioned evolution could not be extended to Kant, since in Kant political thought like classic political thought, politic is the way of development of ethical concepts, with this difference that in Kant thought the concept of “happiness” is replaced with “solipsism” and “perfection”. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Theology and Politics in Political Thought of Frankfurt School
        Iraj Ranjbar  
        According to theoretical view of Habermas on “relation between ethics and politics” in history of western political thought, the ethics and politics in classic era and aristotelian tradition are ingrained around the concept of welfare, because the ethics defines the wel Full Text
        According to theoretical view of Habermas on “relation between ethics and politics” in history of western political thought, the ethics and politics in classic era and aristotelian tradition are ingrained around the concept of welfare, because the ethics defines the welfare and the politics serves as achieving welfare concept. Although, in the modern political thought and in Hobbsian tradition, the ethics and politics are seperated from each other, because the politics defines its goal, not as prospering and giving excellence to its citizens, but as controlling and managing the human instinct for the creation of “security” and achieving “prosperity”. With this description and according to the theoretical framework of Habermas, the present paper believes that in the views of Frankfurt school intellectuals, the ethics and politics merge around the ethical concept like the classic tradition, the only difference is that the joining of ethics and politics is not “prosperity" concept but it is the “salvation” concepts; the concept that is compatible with “excellence concept”. We should add this point that any of this school intellectuals considers the “salvation” achievement way in its special mechanism. Horkhimer, “the objective intellect”, Adorno, “aeshetics”, Markoze, “the intellectual reconstruction of society”And Hobermas, “the dialogue” is the way of achieving the salvation. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - Republicanism’s Status in Mohammad Ali Forogh’ political thought
        Rouzbeh Parham nia Iraj Ranjbar
        Investigating the relationship between monarchy and republicanism in Mohammad Ali Forouqi's political thought is the purpose of the present research. The opposition of monarchy and republicanism, as two politically distinct models for regulating power_based terms and re Full Text
        Investigating the relationship between monarchy and republicanism in Mohammad Ali Forouqi's political thought is the purpose of the present research. The opposition of monarchy and republicanism, as two politically distinct models for regulating power_based terms and relationships within human society has been one of the oldest intellectual conflicts in the domain of political thought. Possessing some realistic insights, Forouqi considers unsociability and irregularity as parts of primary nature of human beings; some violent nature contaminated by lethal instincts of self-conceit and selfishness, ambition of which seems to be endless unless it is overshadowed by some monarchical systems and governance by clever and pretentious kings. Monarchy was not considered as an ideal perfection by Forouqi, but his pessimistic view of humans, on one hand, and social circumstances and political chaos prevailing during his time, on the other hand, led him to perceive politically that the grounds for republicanism_based political order would be provided solely by destroying primary nature and essence of humans and replacing them with secondary nature under monarchical systems. With such a perception of monarchy_republicanism relationship within political thought in mind, present research examines mentioned dichotomous position in the realm of Forouqi’s political thought. By applying Sprigens’ theoretical framework, this research concludes that through observing and recognizing crisis and suffering prevailing on the society he was living in, Forouqi identified political order of monarchy as an interest_based requirement appropriate to Iranian society while his politically ideal norm was formed by his deep cognition of the logic governing modern terms and relations and emergence of a novel order based on the rule of law; A norm that, in his view, would result in mere political chaos and instability within a society lacking primary components of republicanism_based political order. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - The Ethics and Politics in the Abu Ali Ahmad Abn Miskawayh Razi’s Political Thought1
        Iraj Ranjbar  
        The study of the relationship of ethics and politics in the thought of Miskawayh Razi forms the problem of this paper, which seeks to prevent any prejudice in the case of priority and Late between the ethics and politics, and their compliance. Their relationship has bee Full Text
        The study of the relationship of ethics and politics in the thought of Miskawayh Razi forms the problem of this paper, which seeks to prevent any prejudice in the case of priority and Late between the ethics and politics, and their compliance. Their relationship has been investigated in terms of points of conceptual Intersection and Confluence as intermittent circles. A theoretical explanation of such a relation is based on Jürgen Habermas’s model in order to examine the relation of ethics and politics in the history of Western political thought. Based on this theory, the “solidarity” of ethics and politics on the axis of the points of conceptual Intersection and Confluence can be explained, as the ending of such points is considered to be the beginning of the “breakup” of these two arenas. Based on this theory, the present article seeks to analyze and process the problem that how can be explained the axis of intersection and the points of Confluence of ethics and politics in Miskawayh Razi’s political thought. Using the methods of qualitative analysis in the explanation and interpretation of the information and texts available in this regard, the present study concluded that in Miskawayh Razi’s political thought the ethics and politics on the circuit of “well-being and happiness” have confluence, and the achievement of prosperity in this world can be made possible through life in a city, with the use of the best possible ways of exercising power in the city. Manuscript Document