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      • Open Access Article

        1 - The Relation between Alienation and Citizenship in Herbert Marcuse' Poltical Thought
          Azadeh  Shabani
        Many of the political thinker whose matters of concern were human and humanity, criticized the problems of modern society trying to find way out of such problems. One of the most important problems of the world today, is "alienation" which brings reduction for original Full Text
        Many of the political thinker whose matters of concern were human and humanity, criticized the problems of modern society trying to find way out of such problems. One of the most important problems of the world today, is "alienation" which brings reduction for original citizenship and decay for humanity. Among those thinkers who have criticized the situation of alienation, one can mention Herbert Marcuse. According to Herbert Marcuse, realization of a better society depends on emancipation of subjects. From his point of view, the alienated man lives individually for that solidarity between such men has been suppressed effectively, where such solidarity is now the key of emancipation for the mankind. Herbert Marcuse by criticizing the problems of modern society and in contrast to the alienation of the human beings, prepare an alternative situation which contains the characteristics of original citizenship where people cooperate and have powerful links with one another instead of staying individual and isolated. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - The Effect of Globalization on Civil Institutions in Iran1
            Azadeh  Shabani
        In the field of social sciences and humanities in the 1980s, the phenomenon of “globalization” as well as “civil society” were in the spotlight. Meanwhile, the ratio of these two together has been at the center of attention and analysis of various scholars. The concept Full Text
        In the field of social sciences and humanities in the 1980s, the phenomenon of “globalization” as well as “civil society” were in the spotlight. Meanwhile, the ratio of these two together has been at the center of attention and analysis of various scholars. The concept of civil society in Iran was considered in the mid-seventies (the late 1990s). In this article, using the method of critical realism, the effect of globalization on civil institutions in Iran has been analyzed and it has been shown that between 1997 and 2011 there was no relation between the transformation of civil institutions and globalization in Iran. Critical Realism means that the real, that is, civil institutions, consists of three levels ontological, actuality and factual. Public institutions (participatory) are regarded as the ontological level of the real, social institutions as the actuality level of the real and political institutions as the factual level of the real. Manuscript Document