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      • Open Access Article

        1 - Friendship in Political Philosophy
        A m
        Friendship was one of the pivotal notions in Aristotle’s Ethics. It has, however, been neglected and marginalized in the history of western thought. There has, however, in recent times a new attentionbeing paid to this notion. This essay studies the relationship between Full Text
        Friendship was one of the pivotal notions in Aristotle’s Ethics. It has, however, been neglected and marginalized in the history of western thought. There has, however, in recent times a new attentionbeing paid to this notion. This essay studies the relationship between contemporary political philosophy and friendship by assesing the notion of solidarity in this regard . Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Red Reason and Green Rights: Illuminationist Anthropology and Human Rights
        A m
        The notion of "Human Rights" encompass the two notions of "man" and "right" and the relationship between the two. This relationship, however, pertains to much theoretical as well as philosophical elaboration. Looking critically at the prevailing conception of this relat Full Text
        The notion of "Human Rights" encompass the two notions of "man" and "right" and the relationship between the two. This relationship, however, pertains to much theoretical as well as philosophical elaboration. Looking critically at the prevailing conception of this relationship, namely that of possessive individualism, this paper points to a different conception of such relationship. Using the two metaphors of "Red Reason" for a conception of "man", and "Green Rights" for an emancipatory conception of "right", an Illuminationist (Eshraghi) view of "human rights" is elaborated on. Manuscript Document
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        3 - Political Theory: A Paradigmatic Approach
        A m
        Political Thought is usually applied to the commentaries on political Ideas and concepts. There should, however, be a distinction between political ideas and the commentaries and explanation of such ideas. In fact such commentaries should be called “Political Theories”, Full Text
        Political Thought is usually applied to the commentaries on political Ideas and concepts. There should, however, be a distinction between political ideas and the commentaries and explanation of such ideas. In fact such commentaries should be called “Political Theories”, for they explain political thoughts and concepts and elaborate on issues regarding normative thought. In this article, after discussing some major political theories, a paradigmatic theory is introduced. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - The Relationship between Symbolism and Utopian Thought in Nima’s Poetry
        A m
        Nima’s especial understanding of poetry and the poets’ status has a normative signification that results in depicting a kind of utopian vision in his poems. Stressing “imagination” in poetry, Nima like European symbolists, makes closeness and sameness between poetry an Full Text
        Nima’s especial understanding of poetry and the poets’ status has a normative signification that results in depicting a kind of utopian vision in his poems. Stressing “imagination” in poetry, Nima like European symbolists, makes closeness and sameness between poetry and truth, and then between the position of poet as poet and seer or clairvoyant. Such a closeness resulting in rejection of the present disorder, and offering an ideal world, is in line with the concept of ideology in political thought. In this way, Nima’s specific understanding of poetry gives way to a utopian thought that is known as the most obvious manifestation of social thought in his poetry. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        5 - Transition from Agency of Actors to Citizenship Preparation for Inadequacy of Philanthropist Principles of Capability Approach
        A m saeed nariman
        Although Amartya Sens capability approach initially emerged in academic area as a critique to normative and ethical economic foundations, especially welfare economics in 1980s, it has been employed extensively in the context of human development. One of the main concern Full Text
        Although Amartya Sens capability approach initially emerged in academic area as a critique to normative and ethical economic foundations, especially welfare economics in 1980s, it has been employed extensively in the context of human development. One of the main concerns of this approach was the marginalization of human being from the axis of development and well-being and its main critique to others was to consider human as a passive being. Some critics have suggested that, although this approach attempted to introduce a new concept of human beings in economic area, it could not go beyond the current economical human of economics and it just provided more humane conception of development than development for human beings. The majority of criticisms of anthropological basis of Sens approach include three critiques of misinterpretation of human notion, being pre-socio political and methodological individualism. In this paper it's attempted to response to these three critiques based on the definition of agency which Sen has expanded in his approach and then design a theoretical-philosophical agency for misinterpretation anthropological foundation of capability approach by transition from agency (of actors) to citizenship. Manuscript Document
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        6 - Civil Relation and Empowerment: Comparative Study of Hannah Arendt and Amartya Sen
        attaallah karimzadeh A m
        Hannah Ardent as a political philosopher, offering the concept of “civic virtue” and criticizing Liberal democracy, tried to constitute a way of good life in her time. In her version of civic virtue, human as a citizen should be able to secure his/her liberty and equali Full Text
        Hannah Ardent as a political philosopher, offering the concept of “civic virtue” and criticizing Liberal democracy, tried to constitute a way of good life in her time. In her version of civic virtue, human as a citizen should be able to secure his/her liberty and equality, in a context of dialogue and interaction. On the other hand, Amartya Sen in his human development approach, tried to moralize economy in context of Political thought by taking a critical view toward the concept of modernization and economic development. Sen, with the concept of Empowerment, introduced development as freedom, and considered Empowerment as a road to freedom. This notion takes place in an equal and moral context in which each entity of humankind, besides being an agent and capable toward others, has the possibility of dialogue and discussion in democratic situation. In this article, we propose that how the concept of civic virtue in Hannah Ardent has related to human development approach in Amartya Sen, considering human agency in the context. Based on the mentioned question, we assume that the human development approach is in line with civic virtue; which in both the essential priority is human agency. We show that from a civic viewpoint, Empowerment in the context of understanding and interaction has common conceptual and practical grounds with civic virtue as citizenship responsibility in context of dialogue and interaction. Manuscript Document
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        7 - Citizenship as the Normative Implication of Phronetic Development
        عباس  منوچهری saeed nariman
        The relationship between political philosophy and development, as the creation of conditions that would lead to "life betterment", was marginalized in the beginnings of the development of modern political thought. Due to the influence of ideas such as utilitarianism and Full Text
        The relationship between political philosophy and development, as the creation of conditions that would lead to "life betterment", was marginalized in the beginnings of the development of modern political thought. Due to the influence of ideas such as utilitarianism and the market economy, the twentieth century witnessed the re-emergence of the concept of development as growth. The mentioned concept claimed what civic/political knowledge sought from the beginning, namely "Good living". This paper is an attempt to rebalance this situation by developing a theory of phronetic development based on the Aristotelian concept of phronesis. Using an implicative approach, the paper argues for using the concept of citizenship as the normative implication of phronetic development. In order to do so, the paper deconstructs economic growth theory, exposes its reductionist conception of development, and reestablishes the link between moral philosophy, economy, politics, and development. In this conception, democracy as public reasoning, participation as empowering citizens' phronesis, and freedom are the main constitutive elements of phronetic development. Therefore, appropriate policies and measures should be put in place to promote citizenship that induces phronetic development. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        8 - Citizenship" as an Alternative to "Alienation from the World": Based on the Ideas of Hannah Arendt
        Azadeh  Shabani Abbas  Manouchehri
        One of the fundamental problems of modern societies is the problem of "alienation"; For this reason, the analysis and explanation of this problem appears in the studies of many thinkers. Hannah Arendt is one of the political thinkers who, on the one hand, has considered Full Text
        One of the fundamental problems of modern societies is the problem of "alienation"; For this reason, the analysis and explanation of this problem appears in the studies of many thinkers. Hannah Arendt is one of the political thinkers who, on the one hand, has considered the alienation of modern human in her studies, and on the other hand, has re-read and explained the concept of citizenship in its classical sense which is related to action. In this essay, after explaining the two concepts of "alienation from the world" and "citizenship" by Hannah Arendt, an attempt is made to answer the question of whether Arendt's theory of citizenship can be considered as an alternative to the situation of alienation from the world of modern human. It also claims that, in contrast to the alienation of modern human, Arendt's desirable human condition can be realized in terms of citizenship. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        9 - The Right to Human Development
        Abbas  Manouchehri Mohammad Dashti
        Upcoming doubts and challenges of 'growth theory' for development, and its uncertain pathway over the recent decades, have led to the consideration of the theory of 'human development', with guarantees and provisions such as ' development ethics' and 'the right to dev Full Text
        Upcoming doubts and challenges of 'growth theory' for development, and its uncertain pathway over the recent decades, have led to the consideration of the theory of 'human development', with guarantees and provisions such as ' development ethics' and 'the right to development', for realizing the advancement that its object is 'humans' and people. Nevertheless, since these pre-mentioned provisions from Amartya Sen’s standpoint ultimately require an understanding and interpretation of the "human" identity, and in the theory of "human development" this argument does not have the necessary theoretical adequacy, this article has attempted to be an intellectual aide by "existential anthropology" and “the human existential right" in the theory of human development. Manuscript Document