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      • Open Access Article

        1 - Identity Discourse of Islamic Revivalism: Backgrounds and Thoughts
         
        The discourse of ‘Islamic Revival’ is the first influential reaction to Modernity. Opposing the secular modernists, they tried to develop and establish their own discourse, supporting rationalism, justice, freedom, equality, gradual changes and reforms, councils, parlia Full Text
        The discourse of ‘Islamic Revival’ is the first influential reaction to Modernity. Opposing the secular modernists, they tried to develop and establish their own discourse, supporting rationalism, justice, freedom, equality, gradual changes and reforms, councils, parliamentary government system, adapting to Islamic Law (Shari‘a), and so on. In fact, the discourse of ‘Islamic Revival’ that developed in the period of Qajar from the inside of the domestic changes in Islamic countriesas attempted to offer a religious understanding of the ways of confronting the issues challenging Islamic societies (including Iran), and stressed the necessity of taking actions about and reactions to the modern identity. The Consequences and effects of modernity on political, economic, social, and cultural sectors of the Iranian society made the theorists of the discourse redefine traditions, models and institutions related to the traditional life, and clarify their relations to the concepts such as rationalism, freedom, equality, progress and law, in confrontation with the concepts emerging from the condition of the new civilization. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Historiographical & Ideological Approaches and Publicizing Indigenous Thought: Future of Western Political Thought in Iran
         
        Most of the works on western political thought written in Iran, fall in an intermediary position between the two approaches of historiographical and ideological types. By historiography I mean an approach that, giving centrality to discussing elaborately the historical Full Text
        Most of the works on western political thought written in Iran, fall in an intermediary position between the two approaches of historiographical and ideological types. By historiography I mean an approach that, giving centrality to discussing elaborately the historical chronology of formation of a political thought, and biographies of the scholars in the field, neglects to analyze, criticize, and evaluate it. The second type of the works on western political thought is of ideological quality that giving centrality to a particular thought follows a biased approach to it. Such works try to promote an ideology regardless of the explanatory and analytical requirement for an argument. The present article, studying features and consequences of the two approaches in Iranian works on western political thought, attempts to show the necessity for studying it with the sociological approach to thought, whose comprehensive and deep look at a political thought helps to closely understand it in its historical, cultural, political, economical, ideological aspects, and above all, its reflective view. Since a reflective view gives especial importance to the understanding and the criticism resulting from background conditions, subjective nature of cognition, and identity- cultural structures, it can help us with getting rid of the circle of imitation and repetition, and publicizing indigenous thought, more than any other models. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - Psychology of Crowd and Rethinking in Post-political Views: A meta-theoretical standpoint of Elias Canetti
          Negin Nourian-Dehkordi
        The 21st century has seen the rise of crowd waves in various forms and witnessed destructive group behaviors, which are manifestly in contradiction with the image of human as a rational actor. The human was thought to learn from the terrible experiences of the masses of Full Text
        The 21st century has seen the rise of crowd waves in various forms and witnessed destructive group behaviors, which are manifestly in contradiction with the image of human as a rational actor. The human was thought to learn from the terrible experiences of the masses of the twentieth century, today appears as such an irrational de-individualized character that inspired us to rethink the effect of the group on the individual and the tremendous power of the crowd over human behavior. Crowd psychology emphasizes on the importance of passion and emotion in the study of human destructive behaviors in the group and seeks to identify the nature of human crowds and masses and the mechanisms of control of their power. The purpose of this essay is to use the views of Elias Canetti, as a profound observer of Fascism, Nazism and Stalinism, in order to cast light on the rise of crowds in the present century. The main question is what do Canetti perspectives say about the power of the crowds in our time? We will, in response to this question, by qualitative content analysis of part of his works, show that Canetti views can be utilized to deal with crowd phenomena. In addition, for understanding the nature of the masses and crowds and to analyze their power and dynamics and to recognize the mechanisms of control of crowd power and mass uprisings in the 21st century. From the perspective of Canetti crowd psychology, we find that with the erosion of the mechanisms of containment of the crowd power, the danger of mass eruption not only has not banished from our world, but crowd power can appear more threatening and uncontrollable than before. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Karl Löwith's Idea of the Theological Implications of Enlightenment Historical-Political Thought in the Context of the German Anti-Enlightenment Tradition and its Critics
        b j m t h a a n
        From the very beginning of the eighteenth century, the "Enlightenment" became the center of European reflections. Reactions to the Enlightenment have varied. In the first half of the twentieth century in Germany, anti-Enlightenment discourse through thinkers such as H Full Text
        From the very beginning of the eighteenth century, the "Enlightenment" became the center of European reflections. Reactions to the Enlightenment have varied. In the first half of the twentieth century in Germany, anti-Enlightenment discourse through thinkers such as Heidegger, Schmitt, Adorno, Horkheimer and Karl Löwith, raised radical criticisms of the Enlightenment in various philosophical, political, and historical fields. In this essay, based on Skinner's approach, we interpret Karl Löwith's idea about the historical-political thought of the Enlightenment. The question of this article is "in what context was Karl Löwith's idea about the theological implications of the Enlightenment historical-political thought formed and what is the author's intention?" It can be said that Löwith's idea originated in the German anti-Enlightenment tradition in the first half of the twentieth century. He sees modern philosophy of history and the concept of progress as a secularized form of the theology of history and the concept of providence. With this claim, Löwith tries to introduce the Enlightenment as illegitimate by proposing theological roots for it. It seems that the consequences of accepting Löwith's idea could challenge the assumptions of modern thought, especially about the concept of "progress", as a secularized theological concept. In the sense that modern thought cannot be considered an independent thought. In contrast, Santo Mazzarino, Hannah Arendt, and Hans Blumenberg have fundamentally criticized Löwith's theoretical-methodological foundations and challenged him. Manuscript Document