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No 24
Vol. 24 No. 2
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The constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran as an influential concept and phenomenon, needs to be investigated historically to make clear the formation process of its constituent concepts and elements. The concepts and elements have been formed before revolution and as a result of revolution on one hand, and the intellectual attempts of compilers regarding conventionalizing issue. The great characters of revolution not only did not have any perception and special thought of law in their minds, but also they did not think well about the process of law formulation. So while formulating the constitution, they are faced with various difficulties for formulating the key clauses such as sovereignty problems and peolple’s rights and principal freedoms. So for understanding the philosophy and the process of constitution phenomenon in Islamic Republic of Iran, the historical concepts and its formation process and also conventionalizing process of laws should be considered. This goal is achieved considering the mentalities and intentions of formulators of Islamic Republic of Iran’s law while responding the era’s problems.
Mohammad Kamalizadeh -
Keywords : Law ، Constitution ، Faqih Governorship ، Freedom ، Islamic Republic of Iran
Proxy wars, as wars in which fighting missions are delegated to actors who represent other actors or act in their interests, are common in international relations among the common phenomena of international relations that international relations scholars consider its different respects and its great differences with conventional wars attracts the attention of international relations field specially. The implications of these wars for IR as a discipline have not been investigated systematically. The bottomline of this paper is that this type of war and its changes after post cold war era lead to the theoretical and conceptual changes in international relations field. Morover, the differences between two eras show how neo-proxy war challenges most presuppositions of main current of international relations including the effects of plurarity of actors involving in war, fading the boundary between onshore and offshore, and interwoven analytic levels. Furthermore, the variety of attitudes in clarification of proxy war shows that how this phenomenon provides the new ground for more theoretical richness for main theories of international affairs at least potentially. .
Keywords : war ، proxy war ، International Relations ، proxy war agents ، war ، proxy war ، International Relations ، proxy war agents ، patron government ، ،
Internal cohesion among Salafi-Jihadi networks is somehow similar to kinship ties in tribal societies. This is not very reproduction of the kinship ties though it reminds some aspects of Ibn-Khaldun’s notion of “Asabiyah”. Thus in spite of much similarities we can not apply this concept for the analysis of Daesh terrorist group and its related networks enjoying ethnic and linguistic variety. Moreover, some other characteristics of these groups i. e. having affiliated networks and using the social media are specific to the modern societies and therefore the classical notion of “asabiyah” does not appropriately explain their aspects. Analyzing Khaldunian asabiyyah’s elements i. e. kinship ties, religion, and authority, the study of their dynamics and developments through the formation process of ISIS and its internal cohesion, this research delivers an assessment on the possibilities for postulating a new Khaldunian analysis. .
Ahmad Mehraban Dafsari - Mansour Mirahmadi
Keywords : Asabiyah ، Ibn-Khaldun ، Salafi ، Jihadi ، ISIS ، Caliphate ، Neo-Asabiyah
The success of British colonial rule during the nineteenth century was not only dependent on the threat of military force, but also on the sophisticated use of rhetoric so the civilizing mission of Europeans established based on culture as rhetoric and followd 18th and 19th century literature and philosophy. This superiority was followed by 18th and 19th century`s philosophy and literature. Emanuel Kant, the great philosopher of 18th century, in his book “Critique of Judgment” that its first part is the Critique of Aesthetic Judgment and its second part deals with the Critique of Teleological Judgment. Kant in this book introduced a subject, that achieves beauty and sublimity and finality under special conditions; however since in Kant’s view, such understanding is not specific to all people, this question arises for critics that whether there is a sign of racism and colonianism in third criticism of Kant Subject. So, the main question of this article is that is there any colonial and racism streaks in third critique of Kant. This article based on the ideas of the post-colonial critic and theorist, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, is a well-known scholar in diverse fields of post-colonial research, examines and answers this question. Spivak believes that Kant’s theories in two cases, use racism and colonialism; first in analysis of sublimity he states that raw man can understand sublimity as a terrible conceptions because he is not educated and cultured; secondly, in finality discussion, considers Australian indigenous inhabitants without humane nominality. Therfore, the indicating subject of universality or Kant Human does not refer to all humans, but only pays attention to burgeous educated man subject of European Enlightenment period as providing a part of rational principles of Imperialism development.
sediqe pourmokhtar - Shamsolmolouk Mostafavi -
Keywords : Spivak ، Kant ، Sublimity ، Kantian subject ، Teleology
Iranians' intellectual encounter with modernity has wildly fluctuated so far. Iranian thinkers, like Western thinkers, have concentrated their intellectual efforts on providing a solution to the problem of the relationship between subjectivity and generality. The present study investigates Dariush Shayegan's solutions to this issue. To do so, we have first addressed the anthropological species presented and exhibited in his works. The rest of the research reviews Shayegan's works based on the concept of the playful subject and is dedicated to clarifying his solution to the problem of the relationship between subjectivity and generality. The playful subject is a subject that acknowledges its own dichotomy and connects them consciously and playfully. Although Shayegan does not grant full autonomy to subjectivity, and does not dissolve it in generality. .
- abolfazl shakoori
Keywords : playful subject ، Dariush shayegan ، Modernity ، universality ، subjectivity

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