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No 22
Vol. 22 No. 2
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Leviathan is one of the first modern political philosophy texts, which attempt to replace regular civil state of market society and the bourgeois state with the state of nature in which is war of all against each other. Now, the question is: Is civil state of Hobbes is free of violence? It seems that the transition from the state of nature to the civil state is not end of violence, but besides the obvious activist violence, it reinforces more hidden forms of violence including action-accepting and symbolic violence (Hypothesis). This article, in order to understanding and analyzing the types of violence in the civil state of Hobbes, uses the theoretical framework of Slavoj Zizek (theoretical framework). It seems that the origin of activist violence, action-accepting and symbolic in Hobbes's civil state can be found on several factors; The first is that the social phobia that is affected by the evil nature of human still continues in civil state. Second, in the civil state of Hobbes, the governor that has superior authority (sovereignty) is the exception. Third, the ruler for containing the unleashed violence of nature of state, resorts to the force of law, common law and morality, which itself is repulse, repression and Constraint. In other words, it makes a part of citizens in favor of other part, exclusion, repression or limit (the findings). The present article uses Text- author centered hermeneutic method (method).
mohamad ali tavana -
Keywords : Leviathan ، Hobbes ، violence ، civil state ، state of nature (status Quo)
Politics as a philosophy in traditional understanding and as a science in modern understanding of it, takes for granted the possibility of obtaining objective knowledge of the political as its subject matter. But contemporarily, reflective thinking about the relation between theory and practice in politics, has been concluded that thinking about the political corresponds with acting politically, i.e. intending to power. Thus, the main question of this article is that how our understanding of relation between politics and the political with regard to the relation between the ontological and the political has been transformed? Our hypotheses is that in the analysis of political ontology, politics and the political are entangled in a mutual relation in which politology and political practice act as a two sides of a coin. This relation has been analyzed in two dimensions, first: from traditional and modern perspective of the political as particular entity or something to be and second from the perspective of the political ontologically as a being in itself in the context of contemporary critical thought from existential phenomenology to post-structuralism. In analyzing the political as an entity, issues concerning the differences between political and other social entities gets importance. In contrast, the political in its ontological rendition, deals with fundamental problems about the constitution of political life through transformation in theory and practice. Therefore, concentrating on the analysis of political ontology reflectively as a method concerning the analysis of theoretical issues on the second order or meta-theoretical level that itself defines our theoretical framework, the effect of transformation in understanding the relation between politics and the political on the transformation of our subjectivity in respect to the manner of representing the political, has been studied. Thinking critically about the “self” as a conclusion of implementing reflective method in analyzing political ontology, renders critical consciousness about the transformative nature of self/other relationship as a signifier of the political and also beside detecting the negative dimension of the political as a domination and antagonism, focuses on searching new possibilities of political being positively that denotes to co-understanding, reconciliation and emancipation.
Faramarz Taghilou
Keywords : Politics ، The Political ، Ontology ، Self ، Other
Many of the political thinker whose matters of concern were human and humanity, criticized the problems of modern society trying to find way out of such problems. One of the most important problems of the world today, is "alienation" which brings reduction for original citizenship and decay for humanity. Among those thinkers who have criticized the situation of alienation, one can mention Herbert Marcuse. According to Herbert Marcuse, realization of a better society depends on emancipation of subjects. From his point of view, the alienated man lives individually for that solidarity between such men has been suppressed effectively, where such solidarity is now the key of emancipation for the mankind. Herbert Marcuse by criticizing the problems of modern society and in contrast to the alienation of the human beings, prepare an alternative situation which contains the characteristics of original citizenship where people cooperate and have powerful links with one another instead of staying individual and isolated.
- Azadeh Shabani
Keywords :
By the 1960s, the argument was that economic phenomena were purely economic subjects. But since the 1970s, with the revival of interdisciplinary studies, a literature has emerged that argued political factors are effective on economic phenomena. Inspired by this literature and with the focus on the first decade of the Islamic Republic's political economy, this article attempts to indicate how the five political factors, including revolution, war, political instability, political fragmentations, and ultimately the social background of government have affected economic phenomena. To doing so, firstly, this article shows how the war reduced the government's oil revenues in the decade. Secondly, it explains how political instabilities led to a reduction in foreign investment in this period. Thirdly, by emphasizing political fragmentations, it reveals how this factor led to a lack of economic consensus among political elites. Finally, it becomes clear that how the social background of the revolutionary state helped to the emergence of populist economic policies in Iran that time. All these findings show how far were the economic phenomena influenced by political factors and reflected its requirements in the first decade of the revolution.
Abbas Hatami - Hossein Masoudnia - Davood Najafi
Keywords : Political factors ، Economic Relations ، State social base ، Political instability ، fragmentations
In the modern paradigm of political philosophy, we are faced with a hypothetical position that called social contract. The mentioned paradigm is from Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau to draw the origins of the legitimacy of the political society and the various categories of political philosophy, such as security and property. John Rawls restored the social contract again in the late 20th century. It seems that the purpose of using this hypothetical position from political philosophers is to provide a way of "knowing" about politics. The present article seeks to comparatively assess the position of the hypothetical social contract in the political thought of Hobbes and Locke with the thought of John Rawls in the contemporary era. Findings of the research indicate that the use of the hypothetical position of the social contract from the modern thinkers has a deeper position, while this position is only a representation tool for John Rawls. Because Rawls did not try to use the position of Hobbes and Locke to explain forming political society and its legitimacy, and was only seeking justification justice. For this purpose, we have used a comparative method for matching the ideas and the library method is also a tool for collecting information.
mokhtar nouri - Majid tavasoli
Keywords : Social Contract ، Political Society ، Security ، Property and Justice

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