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No 25
Vol. 25 No. 1
2019
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The goal of this article is an evaluation of concrete effect of Foucault’s fundamental and genealogical criticism of modernity, and examining Foucault’s ideas that signify the political system and agency. Foucault believes in the de-transcendentalization of power and knowledge in modern era. The problem is the effect of acceptance of de-transcendentalization of power on political agency, state and governmentality. Foucault’s de-transcendental view does not consider the political as something that is related to sovereignty, and by placing it in an undeterministic framework that is simultaneously cultural and political, he calls it governmentality. Sovereignty doesn't exist in a de-transcendental framework as it may make a person inferior to do something that he wants himself. In contrast, governmentality effects on the practice of ruled, as this is context of self-changing and self-regulating in their everyday behaviors. However, they are not made to do a work that they do not like, but power exercises freely and through the objectification of the subject over them. In response to this problem, Morris Barbie's theory of political modernity, applied as heuristic device for definition of the political and method of application is Arthur Lovejoy's history of ideas. The theory of political modernity prompts dichotomy of freedom-subjugation in two dimensions of state and civil society, in so that correspond with liberal democracy system through priority of subjugation. Hypothesis of this article is that Foucault’s belif that political modernity and liberal democracy system prompts the priority of subjugation and it leads to radical liberal democracy.
Ali Salehifarsani
Keywords : Foucault ، Radical liberal democracy ، Objectification of the subject ، Agonism
In the field of social sciences and humanities in the 1980s, the phenomenon of “globalization” as well as “civil society” were in the spotlight. Meanwhile, the ratio of these two together has been at the center of attention and analysis of various scholars. The concept of civil society in Iran was considered in the mid-seventies (the late 1990s). In this article, using the method of critical realism, the effect of globalization on civil institutions in Iran has been analyzed and it has been shown that between 1997 and 2011 there was no relation between the transformation of civil institutions and globalization in Iran. Critical Realism means that the real, that is, civil institutions, consists of three levels ontological, actuality and factual. Public institutions (participatory) are regarded as the ontological level of the real, social institutions as the actuality level of the real and political institutions as the factual level of the real.
- - Azadeh Shabani
Keywords : Globalization ، Civil Institutions ، Critical Realism ، Lack of Correspondence ، Civil Society
Globalization is one of the key concepts in political science and sociology, which has become one of the major discourses in the literature of these two areas of social sciences. Many thinkers referred to it as the “Discourse of Globalization,” which is a discourse that can measure the proportion of many concepts in political thought in relation to it. One of these concepts is justice. Justice, with any definition, is the starting point for discussing globalization. Is it possible, in principle, to expect justice to be realized under the globalization discourse? In other words, what is the relation between justice and globalization? To answer the question, this paper addresses the views of the two thinkers of the globalization era, Anthony Giddens and Emmanuel Wallerstein. Essentially, I argue that Giddens believes in the Kantian assumption that justice is inherent in globalization, and only with the creation of a civil society in the current era, societies can attain globalization. On the other hand, Wallerstein rejected this claim and placed justice in the age of globalization under the overshoot of the capitalist system.
Hassan Abniki
Keywords : Discourse ، Globalization ، Justice ، Global civil society ، Capitalist system ، ،
John Rawls offers a political definition of justice in the book “Political Liberalism” and believes that this definition, with the properties that he expresses for that, provides the necessary stability for the theory of justice as fairness. Political definition of justice that sometimes Rawls mentions as “Political justice”, changes the conditions of “Original Position” that is mentioned in the book “A Theory of Justice” guarantees the stability justice as fairness, but this action results in some contradictions. By reading Rawls' political justice, this article attempts to study the relationship between “Political justice” and the “Original Position”. The result of this study shows that Rawls' “political justice” have foundations that faces “Original Position” with contradictions, in such a way that removal of “Original Position” in “political liberalism” does not produce the problem.
- hamze alemi
Keywords : Political justice ، Original Position ، Political Liberalism ، justice as fairness ، John Rawls
The article explains Ghazali's solutions about the crises of his time. He designs a utopia based on happiness that is from an esoteric reading of religion. The city is based on a policy of reform and tolerance morality. Ghazali makes his ideal society based on triples of religion, ethics and politics. He expresses the goal of creating this society is the achievement of the members of society to the happiness in the hereafter. This goal is seen in the works of Muslim scholars. We can say that happiness in the hereafter is a common goal among Muslim scholars and Ghazali also writes his vision within this tradition. He poses the reform as an effective way to solve the emerging crises in religion, society and politics, and with an emphasis on religious reform, propose an ideal society.
Tayebeh Mohammadikia
Keywords : Imam Mohammad Ghazali ، Utopia ، Esoteric Reading ، Reform ، Ethics

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